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Disease relevance of Trematoda


High impact information on Trematoda

  • Adult Schistosoma mansoni blood flukes reside in the mesenteric veins of their vertebrate hosts, where they absorb immense quantities of glucose through their tegument by facilitated diffusion [6].
  • Stimulation of flukes with 0.1 mM serotonin results in a reduction of the propionate/acetate 13C enrichment ratio consistent with functional "compartmentation" of glycogen pools having different structures and/or specific enrichment in 13C [7].
  • The functions of the cathepsin B-like proteases in liver flukes are unknown and analysis has been hindered by a lack of protein for study, since the protein is produced in small amounts by juvenile flukes [8].
  • Two cathepsin L proteinases, cathepsin L1 and cathepsin L2, secreted by liver flukes may be involved in tissue penetration, nutrition, and protection from immune attack [9].
  • Altered drug influx/efflux and enhanced metabolic activity in triclabendazole-resistant liver flukes [10].

Biological context of Trematoda


Anatomical context of Trematoda

  • However, while the specific enzyme activity remained constant throughout development, there was a preferential increase in proline production relative to protein content of the flukes just prior to their migration into the bile ducts [15].
  • In previous studies using the Big Blue transgenic mouse assay, we demonstrated an increase in lacI mutations in liver cells harvested from mice harboring F. hepatica flukes when compared to uninfected control animals [16].
  • A4-1 reacted with the substance that located on the gut epithelium and in the luminal contents of both the adult and larval flukes [17].
  • Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda): effect of urethane on the morphology and function of hemocytes, and on susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni (Trematoda) [18].
  • The genital primordia in excysted metacercariae were differentiated into those of metraterm, Mehlis' gland, ovary and cirrus pouch, with the primordial testes appearing on day 1 p.i. The vitellaria and eggs in the uterus were present in flukes on days 2 and 4 p.i., respectively [19].

Associations of Trematoda with chemical compounds

  • Differences in SOD isoenzyme profiles between the extracts were observed in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: the somatic and detergent-soluble extracts exhibited 1 band of activity while the E-S products from immature and adults flukes contained 2 and 3 migrating bands, respectively [20].
  • Incubating the cystatin-sensitized plates with partially purified cysteine proteinases from flukes instead of the ES products also maintained a similar high ELISA reactivity [21].
  • Evidence was collected to show that this may be a selective process since flukes which had survived exposure to rafoxanide and closantel in vivo (in sheep) had lower activity levels of GST than flukes from untreated sheep [22].
  • Most notably, dopamine appeared to depress considerably the large elevation of internal malate which is a characteristic effect of diamphenethide-amine on liver flukes [23].
  • Activation of succinate dehydrogenase from adult Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda) [24].

Gene context of Trematoda

  • At the same time, we found an increase in interleukin-10 production by peritoneal cells (in close contact with the flukes) and decreased nitric oxide levels [25].
  • Thus, liver flukes may secrete molecules that downregulate Th1 responses [26].
  • Immunocytochemical studies, using an anti-tubulin antibody, showed that tubulin organization was disrupted in the tegument of triclabendazole-susceptible flukes [12].
  • Sera of rabbits infected for 3 weeks reacted much more strongly with glycoproteins of immature flukes than with glycoproteins of mature flukes as compared to sera of rabbits infected for 9 weeks [27].
  • Flukes were cultured overnight in RPMI-1640 medium, and the resulting ES products concentrated by dialysis (cut-off 1.2 kDa) before use [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Trematoda


  1. Toxicity of cadmium and zinc to Diplostomum spathaceum (Trematoda: Diplostomidae) cercarial survival. Morley, N.J., Crane, M., Lewis, J.W. Int. J. Parasitol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver of rats infested with Fasciola hepatica. Galtier, P., Larrieu, G., Lesca, P. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Fascioliasis: bile duct collagen induced by proline from the worm. Wolf-Spengler, M.L., Isseroff, H. J. Parasitol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of six fasciolicides against Fascioloides magna In white-tailed deer. Foreyt, W.J., Todd, A.C. J. Wildl. Dis. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. The protection of 80 Nigerian trade cattle from trypanosomiasis and liver flukes using Samorin 1 and Trodax 2. Na'isa, B.K., Nyinya, R. Bulletin of animal health and production in Africa. Bulletin des santé et production animales en Afrique. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Rapid appearance and asymmetric distribution of glucose transporter SGTP4 at the apical surface of intramammalian-stage Schistosoma mansoni. Skelly, P.J., Shoemaker, C.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of carbohydrate metabolism and substrate cycling in Fasciola hepatica. Matthews, P.M., Foxall, D., Shen, L., Mansour, T.E. Mol. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning and expression of the major secreted cathepsin B-like protein from juvenile Fasciola hepatica and analysis of immunogenicity following liver fluke infection. Law, R.H., Smooker, P.M., Irving, J.A., Piedrafita, D., Ponting, R., Kennedy, N.J., Whisstock, J.C., Pike, R.N., Spithill, T.W. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Induction of protective immunity in cattle against infection with Fasciola hepatica by vaccination with cathepsin L proteinases and with hemoglobin. Dalton, J.P., McGonigle, S., Rolph, T.P., Andrews, S.J. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Altered drug influx/efflux and enhanced metabolic activity in triclabendazole-resistant liver flukes. Alvarez, L.I., Solana, H.D., Mottier, M.L., Virkel, G.L., Fairweather, I., Lanusse, C.E. Parasitology (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Signal transduction in larval trematodes: putative systems associated with regulating larval motility and behaviour. Vermeire, J.J., Humphries, J.E., Yoshino, T.P. Parasitology (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Triclabendazole-resistant Fasciola hepatica: beta-tubulin and response to in vitro treatment with triclabendazole. Robinson, M.W., Trudgett, A., Hoey, E.M., Fairweather, I. Parasitology (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Genetic characterization of parthenogenic Fasciola sp. in Japan on the basis of the sequences of ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA. Itagaki, T., Kikawa, M., Sakaguchi, K., Shimo, J., Terasaki, K., Shibahara, T., Fukuda, K. Parasitology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. A nucleic acid-based test for detection of Fasciola hepatica. Shubkin, C.D., White, M.W., Abrahamsen, M.S., Rognlie, M.C., Knapp, S.E. J. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Proline biosynthesis by Fasciola hepatica at different developmental stages in vivo and vitro. Campbell, A.J., Sheers, M., Moore, R.J., Edwards, S.R., Montague, P.E. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  16. Analysis of lacI mutations in Big Blue transgenic mice subjected to parasite-induced inflammation. Motorna, O.O., Martin, H., Gentile, G.J., Gentile, J.M. Mutat. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Production of monoclonal antibody to characterize the antigen of Paragonimus westermani. Sugiyama, H., Hinoue, H., Katahira, J., Horiuchi, T., Tomimura, T., Kamata, Y., Kozaki, S. Parasitol. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda): effect of urethane on the morphology and function of hemocytes, and on susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni (Trematoda). Granath, W.O., Yoshino, T.P. J. Invertebr. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Plagiorchis muris: recovery, growth and development in albino rats. Hong, S.J., Ahn, J.H., Woo, H.C. J. Helminthol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. CuZn superoxide dismutase activities from Fasciola hepatica. Piacenza, L., Radi, R., Goñi, F., Carmona, C. Parasitology (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Cystatin capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunodiagnosis of human paragonimiasis and fascioliasis. Ikeda, T. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Glutathione S-transferases as markers of salicylanilide resistance in isolates of Fasciola hepatica. Miller, C.M., Howell, M.J., Boray, J.C. Int. J. Parasitol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Protection of Fasciola hepatica against flukicidal action of the amine of diamphenethide in vitro. Edwards, S.R., Campbell, A.J., Sheers, M., Moore, R.J., Montague, P.E. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Activation of succinate dehydrogenase from adult Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda). Barrett, J. Parasitology (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Cytokines involved in the immunosuppressor period in experimental fasciolosis in rats. Cervi, L., Cejas, H., Masih, D.T. Int. J. Parasitol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Fasciola hepatica infection downregulates Th1 responses in mice. O'Neill, S.M., Brady, M.T., Callanan, J.J., Mulcahy, G., Joyce, P., Mills, K.H., Dalton, J.P. Parasite Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Fasciola hepatica: comparison of immature and mature immunoreactive glycoproteins. Dalton, J.P., Tom, T.D., Strand, M. Parasite Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Polarization and chemokinesis of ovine and human neutrophils in response to Fasciola hepatica excretory-secretory products. Jefferies, J.R., Corbett, E., Barrett, J., Turner, R.J. Int. J. Parasitol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. [3H]-amino acid uptake and metabolic studies on Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer (Digenea: Paramphistomidae). Abidi, S.M., Nizami, W.A. Int. J. Parasitol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparative efficacy of closantel and triclabendazole against Fasciola hepatica in experimentally infected sheep. Maes, L., Vanparijs, O., Lauwers, H., Deckers, W. Vet. Rec. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Banding patterns of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica (Trematoda) by isoelectric focusing. Lee, C.G., Zimmerman, G.L. J. Parasitol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Response of two isolates of Fasciola hepatica to treatment with triclabendazole in vivo and in vitro. Walker, S.M., McKinstry, B., Boray, J.C., Brennan, G.P., Trudgett, A., Hoey, E.M., Fletcher, H., Fairweather, I. Parasitol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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