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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Life Cycle Stages

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Disease relevance of Life Cycle Stages

  • HIV-1 Tat transactivation is vital for completion of the viral life cycle and has been implicated in determining proviral latency [1].
  • Mutations altering the moloney murine leukemia virus p12 Gag protein affect virion production and early events of the virus life cycle [2].
  • These findings suggest that the VPX protein plays an important role in the in vivo life cycle of the HIV-2/SIV viruses [3].
  • If such peptides are to be considered as candidates in the therapy of HIV infection, it is crucial to know if the anti-HIV efficacy of CD4-based peptides is limited to blockade of infection and virus-induced cell fusion or if other stages of the viral life cycle are affected by these compounds [4].
  • Multiplication of the duplex, circular, phage phiX174DNA (replicative form, RF) in stage II of the replicative life cycle has been observed with a crude enzyme preparation [Eisenberg et al. (1976) Proc, Natl. Acad, Sci. USA 73, 1594-1597] [5].

Psychiatry related information on Life Cycle Stages

  • Impact of tic disorders on ADHD outcome across the life cycle: findings from a large group of adults with and without ADHD [6].
  • Drugs whose primary target is not the rectification of the neurotransmitter deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease but rather the life cycle of amyloid-beta are currently being developed with varying degrees of success [7].

High impact information on Life Cycle Stages

  • After binding to specific receptors on the surface of infected cells, IFN-alpha/beta has the potential to trigger the activation of multiple noncytolytic intracellular antiviral pathways that can target many steps in the viral life cycle, thereby limiting the amplification and spread of the virus and attenuating the infection [8].
  • The aim of this review is to combine the extensive biology of Mls SAgs with our current understanding of the life cycle of MMTV [9].
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs), the polyhydroxylated steroid hormones of plants, regulate the growth and differentiation of plants throughout their life cycle [10].
  • The identification of FGFR1 as a co-receptor for AAV should provide new insights not only into its role in the life cycle of AAV, but also in the optimal use of AAV vectors in human gene therapy [11].
  • A C. elegans neurosecretory signaling system regulates whether animals enter the reproductive life cycle or arrest development at the long-lived dauer diapause stage. daf-2, a key gene in the genetic pathway that mediates this endocrine signaling, encodes an insulin receptor family member [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Life Cycle Stages


Biological context of Life Cycle Stages


Anatomical context of Life Cycle Stages

  • Thus, direct CD40L-dependent B cell activation appears to be a critical step in the life cycle of MMTV [23].
  • Genetic analysis of the function of the Drosophila epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor homolog (DER) has revealed an extremely diverse set of roles for this protein throughout the life cycle of the organism, for example in eye development and in the establishment of dorsoventral polarity in the oocyte [24].
  • Infection of the CEMTART cell line with vIIIB delta Tat/Rev permits the complete HIV-1 life cycle, including cytopathology, decreased expression of CD4, and production of viral structural proteins, to be biologically contained [25].
  • TUNEL analysis indicated that spontaneous apoptosis, a normal process in the life cycle of myeloid cells, was impaired in vitamin A-deficient mice, which may play a role in the increased myeloid cell population [26].
  • Following the sexual phase of its life cycle, the hypotrichous ciliate Oxytricha nova transforms a copy of its chromosomal micronucleus into a macronucleus containing short, linear DNA molecules with an average size of 2.2 kilobase pairs [27].

Associations of Life Cycle Stages with chemical compounds

  • The gaseous hormone ethylene induces diverse effects in plants throughout their life cycle [28].
  • The increasingly complex molecular life cycle of bilirubin [29].
  • The Pro-1 glucose transporter of L. enriettii exists as two isoforms, iso-1 and iso-2, which are both expressed primarily in the promastigote stage of the life cycle [30].
  • Cells of the insect (procyclic) stage of the life cycle of the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, express an abundant stage-specific glycosylated phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored glycoprotein, the procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) [31].
  • In the life cycle of HCV a crucial role is played by a chymotrypsin-like serine protease encoded at the N-terminus of the viral NS3 protein, the solution structure of which we present here complexed with a covalently bound reversible inhibitor [32].

Gene context of Life Cycle Stages

  • The maternal and late expression phases of the Xlim-1 gene suggest that it has multiple functions at different stages of the Xenopus life cycle [33].
  • We have analysed the role of dUTPase (DUT1) in the life cycle of yeast [34].
  • Quantitative analysis of pgp mRNA levels during development showed that pgp-1, -2, and -3 were expressed throughout the life cycle of C.elegans, albeit with some variation indicating developmental regulation [35].
  • This specific requirement for UBC1 after a state of quiescence suggests that degradation of certain proteins may be crucial at this transition point in the yeast life cycle [36].
  • A 35 bp region of SSA3, distinct from UASHS, contains sequences capable of activating a heterologous promoter following the diauxic shift and in the stationary phase of the yeast life cycle; this region has been designated an upstream activating sequence, UASPDS [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Life Cycle Stages

  • Ov-TMY-1 migrates with an apparent molecular mass of 42 kDa on SDS/PAGE and is present in all life-cycle stages, as determined by immunoblotting [38].
  • Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the nuclear localization of TBP during growth, starvation, and conjugation (the sexual phase of the life cycle) [39].
  • Northern blot analysis indicated that all four genes were expressed in a similar pattern during the worm life cycle; however, studies with transgenic worms indicated that the vha-3 gene was expressed differently from other proteolipid genes in a cell-specific manner [40].
  • The retroviral proteinase (PR) seems to play crucial roles in the viral life cycle, therefore it is an attractive target for chemotherapy [41].
  • These human antibodies were isolated by affinity chromatography and were used to demonstrate that G25 antigenic determinants are i) represented at the parasite surface, and ii) are expressed in all developmental stages of the parasite's life cycle, as well as in several T. cruzi strains [42].


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  2. Mutations altering the moloney murine leukemia virus p12 Gag protein affect virion production and early events of the virus life cycle. Yuan, B., Li, X., Goff, S.P. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  16. Cloning and characterization of a Chlamydia psittaci gene coding for a protein localized in the inclusion membrane of infected cells. Rockey, D.D., Heinzen, R.A., Hackstadt, T. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The genes encoding the gCIII complex of human cytomegalovirus exist in highly diverse combinations in clinical isolates. Rasmussen, L., Geissler, A., Cowan, C., Chase, A., Winters, M. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. SV40 large T antigen binds to the TBP-TAF(I) complex SL1 and coactivates ribosomal RNA transcription. Zhai, W., Tuan, J.A., Comai, L. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  32. Inhibitor binding induces active site stabilization of the HCV NS3 protein serine protease domain. Barbato, G., Cicero, D.O., Cordier, F., Narjes, F., Gerlach, B., Sambucini, S., Grzesiek, S., Matassa, V.G., De Francesco, R., Bazzo, R. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
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