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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Oocysts

  • In terms of body weight gain, no significant difference due to toxic interaction between duokvin and any dose of lasalocid or semduramicin was detected in chickens experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria tenella and E. mitis [1].
  • The role of adaptive and innate immune responses in control of parasites was explored by infecting BALB/c, IFN-gamma knockout (GKO), and severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice with S. neurona (10(4) sporocysts/mouse) [2].
  • With the exception of groups given 200mg/kg ponazuril on day 7 or 14 pi, mice in groups that got sporocysts developed abnormal neurologic signs [3].
  • These findings indicate that sulfadimethoxine did not significantly reduce the number of days or severity of diarrhea, or the number of oocysts or patent period, nor did it improve weight gains [4].
  • Piglets were each orally inoculated daily for 4 consecutive days, with 10(4)-10(5) nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhimurium and, starting 1 day after inoculation, with 50 000 Isospora suis sporulated oocysts [5].

High impact information on Oocysts

  • Complete sporulation occurred within 5 to 13 days in oocysts maintained in potassium dichromate at 25 or 32 degrees C. Complete excystation resulted in the liberation of two sporozoites from the two sporocysts within each oocyst (cryptosporidia have four naked sporozoites within each oocyst) [6].
  • The disease can be diagnosed by identification of oocysts in faecal samples that have undergone formalin-ether concentration [7].
  • Using exogenous chitinase, we also found that the PM does not limit the number of parasites that develop into oocysts, suggesting that the parasite produces sufficient quantities of chitinase to penetrate this potential barrier [8].
  • The subcellular distribution of MAEBL, a sporozoite surface protein, is developmentally regulated from presumed storage organelles in day 15 oocysts to uniform distribution on the surface in day 22 oocysts [9].
  • Kinetic studies carried out on the enzyme derived from E. tenella oocysts demonstrated substrate inhibition by NAD and mycophenolic acid inhibition similar to that found for mammalian enzymes, but different from that for bacterial enzymes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Oocysts


Biological context of Oocysts


Anatomical context of Oocysts

  • With arginyl-6-amino-2-styrylquinoline as a substrate, aminopeptidase activity was observed in permeabilized oocysts and freshly excysted sporozoites but not on intact oocysts or empty oocyst membranes after excystation [21].
  • The electrophoretic mobility of oocysts purified on a cold Percoll-sucrose gradient after the feces was defatted with ethyl acetate (EAPS method) varied linearly with pH from 0.0 m2 V-1 s-1 at pH 2.4 to -3.2 x 10(-8) m2 V-1 s-1 at pH 10 (sigma = 0.52), thus displaying the negative surface charge at neutral pH observed by other researchers [22].
  • Of 10 mice given oocysts exposed to formaldehyde, 6 had a few developmental stages of cryptosporidium in the ileum [23].
  • We show here that Pbs25 was detectable in preparations of gametes 30 min post-gametocyte activation, expression continued on zygotes, ookinetes and oocysts indicating there is a significant overlap of expression of the two immunogenic zygote-ookinete proteins belonging to the P25/28 protein family of sexual stage antigens [24].
  • Central nervous systems were incubated with either an acetic acid or a methanolic extract of larval stages of Trichobilharzia ocellata (miracidia, mother sporocysts, cercariae) [25].

Associations of Oocysts with chemical compounds

  • Studies of a glycoprotein in the oocysts of Eimeria tenella [26].
  • (The fifteenth evaluable patient had a CD4 count 235 x 10(6)/l.) Of these 14 patients, five showed a major response (symptomatic improvement and eradication of Cryptosporidial oocysts from the stool), two had a minor response (symptomatic improvement with persistence of oocysts in stool), and seven had no response to therapy with letrazuril [27].
  • Lasalocid and nigericin demonstrated less activity against sporozoites but reduced the infectivity of oocysts [28].
  • They were medicated with 0, 30, 60, or 120 micrograms of halofuginone lactate per kg from days 2 to 8 postinfection (p.i.). Unmedicated calves passed large numbers of oocysts between 3 and 14 days p.i. Treatment with 30 micrograms/kg did not completely inhibit oocyst output during medication, whereas 60 and 120 micrograms/kg did [29].
  • Commonly, oocysts are exposed to a strong solution of L-cysteine [30].

Gene context of Oocysts

  • Groups of interferon-gamma gene knockout (IFN-gamma-KO) mice, inducible nitric oxide synthase gene knockout (iNOS-KO) mice, endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene knockout (eNOS-KO) and appropriate genetic background mice (BALB/c or C57BL/6) were orally fed sporocysts or Hanks balanced salt solution [31].
  • Overall, 14/15 volunteers who did not shed oocysts expressed either IFN-gamma or IL-15 [32].
  • Reduction in shedding of oocysts observed in the Lactobacillus supplemented mice during deminished IL-2 and IFN-gamma production may be mediated by factors released into the intestinal lumen by the Lactobacillus and possibly other host cellular mechanisms [33].
  • Excretion of oocysts by IFN- gamma -deficient mice was unaffected by treatment with anti-IL-4, indicating that IL-4 stimulated IFN- gamma activity [34].
  • During secondary infections, only perforin knockout mice produced significantly more oocysts compared to control mice [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oocysts


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  2. Depletion of natural killer cells does not result in neurologic disease due to Sarcocystis neurona in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. Sellon, D.C., Knowles, D.P., Greiner, E.C., Long, M.T., Hines, M.T., Hochstatter, T., Hasel, K.M., Ueti, M., Gillis, K., Dame, J.B. J. Parasitol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Effect of a single dose of ponazuril on neural infection and clinical disease in Sarcocystis neurona-challenged interferon-gamma knockout mice. Franklin, R.P., MacKay, R.J., Gillis, K.D., Tanhauser, S.M., Ginn, P.E., Kennedy, T.J. Vet. Parasitol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Activity of sulfadimethoxine against cryptosporidiosis in dairy calves. Fayer, R. J. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Interfering effect of Isospora suis infection on Salmonella typhimurium infection in swine. Baba, E., Gaafar, S.M. Vet. Parasitol. (1985) [Pubmed]
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  7. Cryptosporidium: a frequent finding in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Jokipii, L., Pohjola, S., Jokipii, A.M. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Transmission-blocking activity of a chitinase inhibitor and activation of malarial parasite chitinase by mosquito protease. Shahabuddin, M., Toyoshima, T., Aikawa, M., Kaslow, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Analysis of the Plasmodium and Anopheles transcriptomes during oocyst differentiation. Srinivasan, P., Abraham, E.G., Ghosh, A.K., Valenzuela, J., Ribeiro, J.M., Dimopoulos, G., Kafatos, F.C., Adams, J.H., Fujioka, H., Jacobs-Lorena, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. IMP dehydrogenase from the intracellular parasitic protozoan Eimeria tenella and its inhibition by mycophenolic acid. Hupe, D.J., Azzolina, B.A., Behrens, N.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Decoquinate in the control of experimentally induced coccidiosis of calves. Miner, M.L., Jensen, J.B. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on the development of immunity to coccidiosis in chickens. Colnago, G.L., Jensen, L.S., Long, P.L. Poult. Sci. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Use of paromomycin for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in a cat. Barr, S.C., Jamrosz, G.F., Hornbuckle, W.E., Bowman, D.D., Fayer, R. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Malabsorption of vitamin A in preruminating calves infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Holland, R.E., Boyle, S.M., Herdt, T.H., Grimes, S.D., Walker, R.D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Caprine toxoplasmosis: abortion, clinical signs, and distribution of Toxoplasma in tissues of goats fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Dubey, J.P., Sharma, S.P., Lopes, C.W., Williams, J.F., Williams, C.S., Weisbrode, S.E. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of decoquinate and clopidol on electron transport in mitochondria of Eimeria tenella (Apicomplexa: Coccidia). Fry, M., Williams, R.B. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Spiramycin therapy for cryptosporidial diarrhoea in immunocompromised patients. Moskovitz, B.L., Stanton, T.L., Kusmierek, J.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum DNA in formed human feces by a sensitive PCR-based assay including uracil-N-glycosylase inactivation. Gobet, P., Buisson, J.C., Vagner, O., Naciri, M., Grappin, M., Comparot, S., Harly, G., Aubert, D., Varga, I., Camerlynck, P., Bonnin, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Modeling Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation in a full-scale ozone contactor. Tang, G., Adu-Sarkodie, K., Kim, D., Kim, J.H., Teefy, S., Shukairy, H.M., Mariñas, B.J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Role of surface proteins in the deposition kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Kuznar, Z.A., Elimelech, M. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Arginine aminopeptidase, an integral membrane protein of the Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite. Okhuysen, P.C., DuPont, H.L., Sterling, C.R., Chappell, C.L. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Influence of pretreatment and experimental conditions on electrophoretic mobility and hydrophobicity of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Brush, C.F., Walter, M.F., Anguish, L.J., Ghiorse, W.C. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Gaseous disinfection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Fayer, R., Graczyk, T.K., Cranfield, M.R., Trout, J.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterisation and expression of pbs25, a sexual and sporogonic stage specific protein of Plasmodium berghei. del Carmen Rodriguez, M., Gerold, P., Dessens, J., Kurtenbach, K., Schwartz, R.T., Sinden, R.E., Margos, G. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro release of the anti-gonadotropic hormone, schistosomin, from the central nervous system of Lymnaea stagnalis is induced with a methanolic extract of cercariae of Trichobilharzia ocellata. Schallig, H.D., Sassen, M.J., De Jong-Brink, M. Parasitology (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Studies of a glycoprotein in the oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Stotish, R.L., Wang, C.C., Hichens, M., VandenHeuvel, W.J., Gale, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. A phase I study of letrazuril in AIDS-related cryptosporidiosis. Harris, M., Deutsch, G., MacLean, J.D., Tsoukas, C.M. AIDS (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Short-term exposure to membrane-active antibiotics inhibits Cryptosporidium parvum infection in cell culture. Giacometti, A., Cirioni, O., Del Prete, M.S., Barchiesi, F., Scalise, G. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Specific serum and local antibody responses against Cryptosporidium parvum during medication of calves with halofuginone lactate. Peeters, J.E., Villacorta, I., Naciri, M., Vanopdenbosch, E. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. The nature and action of host signals. Sommerville, R.I., Rogers, W.P. Advances in parasitology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Mice lacking the gene for inducible or endothelial nitric oxide are resistant to sporocyst induced Sarcocystis neurona infections. Rosypal, A.C., Lindsay, D.S., Duncan, R., Ahmed, S.A., Zajac, A.M., Dubey, J.P. Vet. Parasitol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of IL-15 and IL-4 in IFN-gamma-independent control of experimental human Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Robinson, P., Okhuysen, P.C., Chappell, C.L., Lewis, D.E., Shahab, I., Lahoti, S., White, A.C. Cytokine (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri or L. acidophilus reduced intestinal shedding of cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in immunodeficient C57BL/6 mice. Alak, J.I., Wolf, B.W., Mdurvwa, E.G., Pimentel-Smith, G.E., Kolavala, S., Abdelrahman, H., Suppiramaniam, V. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Protection against the early acute phase of Cryptosporidium parvum infection conferred by interleukin-4-induced expression of T helper 1 cytokines. McDonald, S.A., O'Grady, J.E., Bajaj-Elliott, M., Notley, C.A., Alexander, J., Brombacher, F., McDonald, V. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Nonspecific immune responses and mechanisms of resistance to Eimeria papillata infections in mice. Schito, M.L., Barta, J.R. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
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  37. Evaluation of a strategy for Toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection in water. Villena, I., Aubert, D., Gomis, P., Ferté, H., Inglard, J.C., Denis-Bisiaux, H., Dondon, J.M., Pisano, E., Ortis, N., Pinon, J.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Rat model for human cryptosporidiosis. Brasseur, P., Lemeteil, D., Ballet, J.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  39. Settling behavior of unpurified Cryptosporidium oocysts in laboratory settling columns. Young, P.L., Komisar, S.J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Biological effects of gamma-irradiation on laboratory and field isolates of Eimeria tenella (Protozoa; Coccidia). Gilbert, J.M., Fuller, A.L., Scott, T.C., McDougald, L.R. Parasitol. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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