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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chlorocresol, an additive to commercial succinylcholine, induces contracture of human malignant hyperthermia-susceptible muscles via activation of the ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channel.

BACKGROUND: A defect in the ryanodine (Ry1) receptor Ca2+ channel has been implicated as one of the possible underlying causes of malignant hyperthermia (MH), a pharmacogenetic disorder characterized by sustained muscle contracture. The disease is triggered by common halogenated anesthetics and skeletal muscle relaxants, such as succinylcholine. This study tested whether the functional properties of the Ry1 receptor Ca2+ channel are affected by chlorocresol, a preservative added to a commercial preparation of succinylcholine (Midarine) and other parenteral compounds. METHODS: In vitro contracture testing was carried out on muscle biopsies from malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) and -negative (MHN) individual according to the protocol of the European MH group. Ca2+ flux studies on isolated rabbit sarcoplasmic reticulum fractions were measured spectrophotometrically by following the A710-790 of the Ca2+ indicator antipyrylazo III. RESULTS: Chlorocresol causes muscle contracture in MHS muscles at a concentration of 25-50 microM and potentiates the caffeine contracture response in human MHS muscles. Sub-threshold (20 microM) concentrations of chlorocresol increase both the Kd and the Vmax of caffeine-induced Ca2+ release from isolated rabbit terminal cisternae. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that, in muscle from MHS individuals, the enhanced Ca2+ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum may not be due to the effect of succinylcholine alone but rather to the action of the preservative chlorocresol added to the drug.[1]


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