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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Enzymatic and chemical footprinting of anthracycline antitumor antibiotics and related saccharide side chains.

DNase I and three DNA chemical footprinting agents were used to compare the DNA binding properties of the anthracycline antitumor antibiotics daunomycin, aclacinomycin A, and ditrisarubicin B. These anthracyclines contain a tetracyclic chromophore which intercalates into DNA and a monosaccharide, trisaccharide, and two trisaccharide side chains, respectively. These side chains consist of between one and three 2,6-dideoxy, 1,4-diaxially linked sugars. Three chemical probes, fotemustine, dimethyl sulfate, 4-(2'-bromoethyl)phenol, and the enzymic probe DNase I were used in the footprinting experiments. The chemical probes provided a clear picture of the binding pattern at 37 degrees C and more detailed information than that obtained using the standard DNase I footprinting assay. All three anthracyclines showed preferred binding to 5'-GT-3' sequences in both the chemical and enzymatic footprinting. DNase I footprinting showed that the number of base pairs of DNA protected from cleavage increased with the number of saccharide groups present at particular sites and is consistent with DNA binding of the saccharide side chains. Alkylation of runs of guanine by fotemustine was inhibited by all three anthracyclines, while alkylation by dimethyl sulfate was enhanced for most guanines. The probe 4-(2'-bromoethyl)phenol showed that all three anthracyclines completely protected all of the adenines in the minor groove from alkylation, and enhanced major groove guanine alkylation was observed with aclacinomycin A, daunomycin, and, to a much lesser extent, ditrisarubicin B. These results are consistent with intercalation of the aglycone ring and binding of the rigid, hydrophobic saccharide side chains in the minor groove. Footprinting of four methyl glycosides related to the anthracyclines showed no evidence of DNA binding with any of the agents studied.[1]


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