The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Attenuated ALK5 receptor expression in human pancreatic cancer: correlation with resistance to growth inhibition.

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that bind TGF-beta ligands. In this study we assessed the growth responsiveness to TGF-beta 1 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and characterized the levels of expression of TGF-beta receptors in these cell lines and in human pancreatic cancer tissues. COLO 357 cells were most sensitive to the growth inhibitory actions of TGF-beta 1, PANC-1 cells exhibited moderate sensitivity, Hs766T cells exhibited slight sensitivity and MIA PaCa-2 and T3M4 cells were resistant to TGF-beta 1. Only COLO 357 cells expressed high levels of ALK5, the major type I TGF-beta receptor (T beta RI). Hs766T and PANC-1 cells expressed high levels of SKR1, another T beta RI subtype. Only MIA PaCa-2 cells did not exhibit the type II TGF-beta receptor (T beta-RII) transcript, whereas type III TGF-beta receptor (T beta-RIII) mRNA levels were elevated in this cell line and in HS766T cells. All the cell lines expressed TGF-beta 1, but TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 mRNA levels were variable. ALK5 and SKR1 mRNA levels were 6.8- and 9-fold greater in the pancreatic tumors in comparison with the corresponding levels in the normal pancreas. However, in the cancer cells, ALK5 immunoreactivity was faint, whereas T beta RII immunoreactivity was focal and intense. Conversely, in ductal cells adjacent to cancer cells ALK5 immunoreactivity was strong, whereas T beta RII immunoreactivity was weak. Since ALK5 heterodimerization with T beta RII is crucial for TGF-beta-mediated signaling, our findings suggest that low levels of ALK5 in pancreatic cancer cells within a tumor may protect against growth inhibition.[1]


  1. Attenuated ALK5 receptor expression in human pancreatic cancer: correlation with resistance to growth inhibition. Baldwin, R.L., Friess, H., Yokoyama, M., Lopez, M.E., Kobrin, M.S., Büchler, M.W., Korc, M. Int. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities