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Gene Review

TGFB2  -  transforming growth factor, beta 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BSC-1 cell growth inhibitor, Cetermin, G-TSF, Glioblastoma-derived T-cell suppressor factor, LDS4, ...
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Disease relevance of TGFB2


Psychiatry related information on TGFB2


High impact information on TGFB2


Chemical compound and disease context of TGFB2


Biological context of TGFB2

  • Finally, utilizing the polymorphisms described for TGFB2 and HLX1, we have been able to localize these genes within a framework map of the distal long arm of chromosome 1 and to study the linkage relationship between these two genes [18].
  • We propose that HLX1 is the human homologue of the mouse homeobox gene Hlx based on extensive sequence homology between the genes and the close proximity of both genes to TGFB2 in their respective species [18].
  • Transfection of these cells with TbetaRII-B restores TGF-beta2 sensitivity [19].
  • While signal transduction by TGF-beta1 has been well characterized, receptor binding and activation by the TGF-beta2 isoform is less well understood [19].
  • Recently, the TbetaRIII null mouse was generated and revealed significant non-overlapping phenotypes with the TGF-beta2 null mouse, implying the existence of TbetaRIII independent mechanisms for TGF-beta2 signaling [20].

Anatomical context of TGFB2


Associations of TGFB2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TGFB2


Co-localisations of TGFB2


Regulatory relationships of TGFB2


Other interactions of TGFB2

  • Here, we show that TbetaRII-B, an alternatively spliced variant of the TGF-beta type II receptor, is a TGF-beta2 binding receptor, which mediates signalling via the Smad pathway in the absence of any TGF-beta type III receptor (TbetaRIII) [19].
  • The gene for transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFB2) and the gene for the homeodomain box (HLX1) are both eliminated as candidates for USH2A, by virtue of their localization outside these flanking markers [38].
  • TGF beta1, TGF beta2, and TGF beta3 were strongly positive in all 15 patients, but only scattered cells were positive in the normal controls [39].
  • IFN-gamma reduced the production of active form of TGF-beta2 to 4-9% [23].
  • RT-PCR analyses showed that TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increased the mRNA levels of both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TGFB2


  1. Increased TGF-beta2 in severe asthma with eosinophilia. Balzar, S., Chu, H.W., Silkoff, P., Cundall, M., Trudeau, J.B., Strand, M., Wenzel, S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. In situ analysis of transforming growth factor-beta s (TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3), and TGF-beta type II receptor expression in malignant melanoma. Schmid, P., Itin, P., Rufli, T. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 Is an Antagonist of Transforming Growth Factor-{beta}2 in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells. Fuchshofer, R., Yu, A.H., Welge-Lüssen, U., Tamm, E.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequence analysis of the promoter region of the glioblastoma derived T cell suppressor factor/transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 2 gene reveals striking differences to the TGF-beta 1 and -beta 3 genes. Malipiero, U., Höller, M., Werner, U., Fontana, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in human prion diseases. Tashiro, H., Dohura, K., Iwaki, T. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Lactate promotes glioma migration by TGF-beta2-dependent regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Baumann, F., Leukel, P., Doerfelt, A., Beier, C.P., Dettmer, K., Oefner, P.J., Kastenberger, M., Kreutz, M., Nickl-Jockschat, T., Bogdahn, U., Bosserhoff, A.K., Hau, P. Neuro-oncology (2009) [Pubmed]
  7. TGF-beta receptors-I and -II immunoexpression in Alzheimer's disease: a comparison with aging and progressive supranuclear palsy. Lippa, C.F., Flanders, K.C., Kim, E.S., Croul, S. Neurobiol. Aging (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Cytokines and anorexia nervosa. Corcos, M., Guilbaud, O., Chaouat, G., Cayol, V., Speranza, M., Chambry, J., Paterniti, S., Moussa, M., Flament, M., Jeammet, P. Psychosomatic medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the CSF of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Stoeck, K., Bodemer, M., Zerr, I. J. Neuroimmunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression cloning of the TGF-beta type II receptor, a functional transmembrane serine/threonine kinase. Lin, H.Y., Wang, X.F., Ng-Eaton, E., Weinberg, R.A., Lodish, H.F. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The transforming growth factor-beta system, a complex pattern of cross-reactive ligands and receptors. Cheifetz, S., Weatherbee, J.A., Tsang, M.L., Anderson, J.K., Mole, J.E., Lucas, R., Massagué, J. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Retinoblastoma gene product activates expression of the human TGF-beta 2 gene through transcription factor ATF-2. Kim, S.J., Wagner, S., Liu, F., O'Reilly, M.A., Robbins, P.D., Green, M.R. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Growth stimulation and differential regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1), TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 messenger RNA levels by norethindrone in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Jeng, M.H., Jordan, V.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Interaction of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) with proteinase 3. Kekow, J., Csernok, E., Szymkowiak, C., Gross, W.L. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Reversal of tamoxifen resistance of human breast carcinomas in vivo by neutralizing antibodies to transforming growth factor-beta. Arteaga, C.L., Koli, K.M., Dugger, T.C., Clarke, R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. N-[3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl]-anthranilic acid (tranilast) inhibits transforming growth factor-beta relesase and reduces migration and invasiveness of human malignant glioma cells. Platten, M., Wild-Bode, C., Wick, W., Leitlein, J., Dichgans, J., Weller, M. Int. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Renal fibrosis in mice treated with human recombinant transforming growth factor-beta2. Ledbetter, S., Kurtzberg, L., Doyle, S., Pratt, B.M. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Linkage localization of TGFB2 and the human homeobox gene HLX1 to chromosome 1q. Nishimura, D.Y., Purchio, A.F., Murray, J.C. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Type III TGF-beta receptor-independent signalling of TGF-beta2 via TbetaRII-B, an alternatively spliced TGF-beta type II receptor. Rotzer, D., Roth, M., Lutz, M., Lindemann, D., Sebald, W., Knaus, P. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. In the absence of type III receptor, the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type II-B receptor requires the type I receptor to bind TGF-beta2. del Re, E., Babitt, J.L., Pirani, A., Schneyer, A.L., Lin, H.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The soluble exoplasmic domain of the type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor. A heterogeneously glycosylated protein with high affinity and selectivity for TGF-beta ligands. Lin, H.Y., Moustakas, A., Knaus, P., Wells, R.G., Henis, Y.I., Lodish, H.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Attenuated ALK5 receptor expression in human pancreatic cancer: correlation with resistance to growth inhibition. Baldwin, R.L., Friess, H., Yokoyama, M., Lopez, M.E., Kobrin, M.S., Büchler, M.W., Korc, M. Int. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Interferon-gamma differentially regulates TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells through JAK-STAT pathway. Nagineni, C.N., Cherukuri, K.S., Kutty, V., Detrick, B., Hooks, J.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 immunoreactivity within the ciliary epithelium [corrected]. Peress, N.S., Perillo, E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Stimulation of chondrogenesis in limb bud mesoderm cells by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2B (BMP-2B) and modulation by transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 2. Chen, P., Carrington, J.L., Hammonds, R.G., Reddi, A.H. Exp. Cell Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of TGF-betas and their receptors is differentially modulated by reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in human articular chondrocytes. Ayache, N., Boumediene, K., Mathy-Hartert, M., Reginster, J.Y., Henrotin, Y., Pujol, J.P. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Cyclic AMP induces transforming growth factor beta 2 gene expression and growth arrest in the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3. Bang, Y.J., Kim, S.J., Danielpour, D., O'Reilly, M.A., Kim, K.Y., Myers, C.E., Trepel, J.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors on BeWo choriocarcinoma cells including the identification of a novel 38-kDa TGF-beta binding glycoprotein. Mitchell, E.J., Lee, K., O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. Mol. Biol. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Endoglin is a component of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor system in human endothelial cells. Cheifetz, S., Bellón, T., Calés, C., Vera, S., Bernabeu, C., Massagué, J., Letarte, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Binding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction. Philip, A., Bostedt, L., Stigbrand, T., O'Connor-McCourt, M.D. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Transforming growth factor-beta bound to soluble derivatives of the beta amyloid precursor protein of Alzheimer's disease. Bodmer, S., Podlisny, M.B., Selkoe, D.J., Heid, I., Fontana, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Growth factors regulate the expression profile of their syndecan co-receptors and the differentiation of mesothelioma cells. Dobra, K., Nurminen, M., Hjerpe, A. Anticancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Interleukin-4- and interleukin-13-enhanced transforming growth factor-beta2 production in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells is attenuated by interferon-gamma. Wen, F.Q., Kohyama, T., Liu, X., Zhu, Y.K., Wang, H., Kim, H.J., Kobayashi, T., Abe, S., Spurzem, J.R., Rennard, S.I. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Glucocorticoids modulate TGF-beta production by human fetal lung fibroblasts. Wen, F.Q., Kohyama, T., Sköld, C.M., Zhu, Y.K., Liu, X., Romberger, D.J., Stoner, J., Rennard, S.I. Inflammation (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Cytokine effect on fibronectin release by retinal pigment epithelial cells. Osusky, R., Soriano, D., Ye, J., Ryan, S.J. Curr. Eye Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  36. Transforming growth factor-beta 2 is a transcriptional target for Akt/protein kinase B via forkhead transcription factor. Samatar, A.A., Wang, L., Mirza, A., Koseoglu, S., Liu, S., Kumar, C.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Interferon-gamma inhibits transforming growth factor-beta production in human airway epithelial cells by targeting Smads. Wen, F.Q., Liu, X., Kobayashi, T., Abe, S., Fang, Q., Kohyama, T., Ertl, R., Terasaki, Y., Manouilova, L., Rennard, S.I. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Gene mapping of Usher syndrome type IIa: localization of the gene to a 2.1-cM segment on chromosome 1q41. Kimberling, W.J., Weston, M.D., Möller, C., van Aarem, A., Cremers, C.W., Sumegi, J., Ing, P.S., Connolly, C., Martini, A., Milani, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. Cytokine production in muscle tissue of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Lundberg, I., Ulfgren, A.K., Nyberg, P., Andersson, U., Klareskog, L. Arthritis Rheum. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Transforming growth factor-betas and their signaling receptors are coexpressed in Crohn's disease. di Mola, F.F., Friess, H., Scheuren, A., Di Sebastiano, P., Graber, H., Egger, B., Zimmermann, A., Korc, M., Büchler, M.W. Ann. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines. Damstrup, L., Rygaard, K., Spang-Thomsen, M., Skovgaard Poulsen, H. Br. J. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  42. Differential expression and regulation of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, TGF-betaRI, TGF-betaRII and TGF-betaRIII in cultured human corneal, limbal, and conjunctival fibroblasts. Li, D.Q., Lee, S.B., Tseng, S.C. Curr. Eye Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  43. Transforming growth factor-beta synthesis by human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Induction by interleukin-1. Offner, F.A., Feichtinger, H., Stadlmann, S., Obrist, P., Marth, C., Klingler, P., Grage, B., Schmahl, M., Knabbe, C. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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