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Gene Review

TGFB3  -  transforming growth factor, beta 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARVD, ARVD1, RNHF, TGF-beta-3, TGF-beta3, ...
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Disease relevance of TGFB3


Psychiatry related information on TGFB3


High impact information on TGFB3


Chemical compound and disease context of TGFB3


Biological context of TGFB3


Anatomical context of TGFB3


Associations of TGFB3 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of TGFB3

  • TGF-beta 3 inhibits the binding of 125I-TGF-beta 1 to the soluble type II receptor with a similar dissociation constant, approximately 500 pM [27].
  • Competition affinity-labeling experiments showed that endoglin binds TGF-beta 1 (KD approximately 50 pM) and TGF-beta 3 with high affinity but fails to bind TGF-beta 2 [28].
  • Here, we present the 2.15 A crystal structure of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the human TGF-beta type II receptor (ecTbetaR2) in complex with human TGF-beta3. ecTbetaR2 interacts with homodimeric TGF-beta3 by binding identical finger segments at opposite ends of the growth factor [29].

Co-localisations of TGFB3


Regulatory relationships of TGFB3


Other interactions of TGFB3

  • Association of MSX1 and TGFB3 with nonsyndromic clefting in humans [34].
  • Neither TGF-beta1 nor TGF-beta3 was released [35].
  • Modest evidence of LD between marker alleles and CL/P was found at the RARA and TGFB3 loci suggesting a minor role for these genes in our family set of nonsyndromic CL/P [36].
  • After 18 hours of serum starvation, the cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3 for 24 hours [37].
  • We also detect TGF-beta 3 and T beta RII protein in association with keratin-positive TEC in vitro and in vivo [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TGFB3


  1. MSX1 and TGFB3 contribute to clefting in South America. Vieira, A.R., Orioli, I.M., Castilla, E.E., Cooper, M.E., Marazita, M.L., Murray, J.C. J. Dent. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Transforming growth factor-beta 1, 2, 3 and receptor type I and II in diabetic foot ulcers. Jude, E.B., Blakytny, R., Bulmer, J., Boulton, A.J., Ferguson, M.W. Diabet. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in human prion diseases. Tashiro, H., Dohura, K., Iwaki, T. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunohistochemical localization of members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily in normal human salivary glands and pleomorphic adenomas. Kusafuka, K., Yamaguchi, A., Kayano, T., Takemura, T. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Transforming growth factor-beta isoform and receptor expression in chondrosarcoma of bone. Masi, L., Malentacchi, C., Campanacci, D., Franchi, A. Virchows Arch. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Evaluation of two putative susceptibility loci for oral clefts in the Danish population. Mitchell, L.E., Murray, J.C., O'Brien, S., Christensen, K. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 in serosal tissues of human intraperitoneal organs and peritoneal adhesions. Chegini, N., Kotseos, K., Zhao, Y., Bennett, B., McLean, F.W., Diamond, M.P., Holmdahl, L., Burns, J. Hum. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of TGF-beta 3 restores the invasive capability of extravillous trophoblasts in preeclamptic pregnancies. Caniggia, I., Grisaru-Gravnosky, S., Kuliszewsky, M., Post, M., Lye, S.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Dog mastocytoma cells produce transforming growth factor beta 1. Pennington, D.W., Lopez, A.R., Thomas, P.S., Peck, C., Gold, W.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Enhanced expression of transforming growth factor beta isoforms in pancreatic cancer correlates with decreased survival. Friess, H., Yamanaka, Y., Büchler, M., Ebert, M., Beger, H.G., Gold, L.I., Korc, M. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Structures of an ActRIIB:activin A complex reveal a novel binding mode for TGF-beta ligand:receptor interactions. Thompson, T.B., Woodruff, T.K., Jardetzky, T.S. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Growth stimulation and differential regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1), TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 messenger RNA levels by norethindrone in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Jeng, M.H., Jordan, V.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Transforming growth factor-beta3 protection of epithelial cells from cycle-selective chemotherapy in vitro. McCormack, E.S., Borzillo, G.V., Ambrosino, C., Mak, G., Hamablet, L., Qu, G.Y., Haley, J.D. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Hypoxia differentially enhances the effects of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms on the synthesis and secretion of glycosaminoglycans by human lung fibroblasts. Papakonstantinou, E., Roth, M., Tamm, M., Eickelberg, O., Perruchoud, A.P., Karakiulakis, G. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Retinoic acid down-regulates VPAC(1) receptors and TGF-beta 3 but up-regulates TGF-beta 2 in lung cancer cells. Jakowlew, S.B., Zakowicz, H., Moody, T.W. Peptides (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Retinoic acid, GABA-ergic, and TGF-beta signaling systems are involved in human cleft palate fibroblast phenotype. Baroni, T., Bellucci, C., Lilli, C., Pezzetti, F., Carinci, F., Becchetti, E., Carinci, P., Stabellini, G., Calvitti, M., Lumare, E., Bodo, M. Mol. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 mRNA expression in human cornea. Nishida, K., Sotozono, C., Adachi, W., Yamamoto, S., Yokoi, N., Kinoshita, S. Curr. Eye Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. PAX9 and TGFB3 are linked to susceptibility to nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in the Japanese: population-based and family-based candidate gene analyses. Ichikawa, E., Watanabe, A., Nakano, Y., Akita, S., Hirano, A., Kinoshita, A., Kondo, S., Kishino, T., Uchiyama, T., Niikawa, N., Yoshiura, K. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. A new type of transforming growth factor-beta, TGF-beta 3. Derynck, R., Lindquist, P.B., Lee, A., Wen, D., Tamm, J., Graycar, J.L., Rhee, L., Mason, A.J., Miller, D.A., Coffey, R.J. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 immunoreactivity within the ciliary epithelium [corrected]. Peress, N.S., Perillo, E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Transforming growth factor-beta 3 is expressed in nondividing basal epithelial cells in normal human prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and is no longer detectable in prostate carcinoma. Djonov, V., Ball, R.K., Graf, S., Mottaz, A.E., Arnold, A.M., Flanders, K., Studer, U.E., Merz, V.W. Prostate (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Human thymic epithelial cells produce TGF-beta 3 and express TGF-beta receptors. Schluns, K.S., Grutkoski, P.S., Cook, J.E., Engelmann, G.L., Le, P.T. Int. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Suppression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) and TGF beta receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein expression in leiomyomata in women receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy. Dou, Q., Zhao, Y., Tarnuzzer, R.W., Rong, H., Williams, R.S., Schultz, G.S., Chegini, N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta during early human fetal prostate development. Raghow, S., Shapiro, E., Steiner, M.S. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation of embryonic cardiac endothelial cells is inhibited by a modified antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to transforming growth factor beta 3. Potts, J.D., Dagle, J.M., Walder, J.A., Weeks, D.L., Runyan, R.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of translation of transforming growth factor-beta 3 mRNA by its 5' untranslated region. Arrick, B.A., Lee, A.L., Grendell, R.L., Derynck, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. The soluble exoplasmic domain of the type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor. A heterogeneously glycosylated protein with high affinity and selectivity for TGF-beta ligands. Lin, H.Y., Moustakas, A., Knaus, P., Wells, R.G., Henis, Y.I., Lodish, H.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Endoglin is a component of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor system in human endothelial cells. Cheifetz, S., Bellón, T., Calés, C., Vera, S., Bernabeu, C., Massagué, J., Letarte, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Crystal structure of the human TbetaR2 ectodomain--TGF-beta3 complex. Hart, P.J., Deep, S., Taylor, A.B., Shu, Z., Hinck, C.S., Hinck, A.P. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. IL-1 beta and IL-6 selectively induce transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in human articular chondrocytes. Villiger, P.M., Kusari, A.B., ten Dijke, P., Lotz, M. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. TGF-beta s and TGF-beta type II receptor in human epidermis: differential expression in acute and chronic skin wounds. Schmid, P., Cox, D., Bilbe, G., McMaster, G., Morrison, C., Stähelin, H., Lüscher, N., Seiler, W. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and stress-activated protein kinase/Jun N-terminal kinase activation by transforming growth factor beta in the negative growth control of breast cancer cells. Frey, R.S., Mulder, K.M. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  33. Annexin II-mediated plasmin generation activates TGF-beta3 during epithelial-mesenchymal transformation in the developing avian heart. Krishnan, S., Deora, A.B., Annes, J.P., Osoria, J., Rifkin, D.B., Hajjar, K.A. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Association of MSX1 and TGFB3 with nonsyndromic clefting in humans. Lidral, A.C., Romitti, P.A., Basart, A.M., Doetschman, T., Leysens, N.J., Daack-Hirsch, S., Semina, E.V., Johnson, L.R., Machida, J., Burds, A., Parnell, T.J., Rubenstein, J.L., Murray, J.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Interleukin-4- and interleukin-13-enhanced transforming growth factor-beta2 production in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells is attenuated by interferon-gamma. Wen, F.Q., Kohyama, T., Liu, X., Zhu, Y.K., Wang, H., Kim, H.J., Kobayashi, T., Abe, S., Spurzem, J.R., Rennard, S.I. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Linkage disequilibrium between GABRB3 gene and nonsyndromic familial cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Scapoli, L., Martinelli, M., Pezzetti, F., Carinci, F., Bodo, M., Tognon, M., Carinci, P. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts have increased connective tissue growth factor expression after transforming growth factor-beta stimulation. Colwell, A.S., Phan, T.T., Kong, W., Longaker, M.T., Lorenz, P.H. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Transforming growth factor-betas and their signaling receptors are coexpressed in Crohn's disease. di Mola, F.F., Friess, H., Scheuren, A., Di Sebastiano, P., Graber, H., Egger, B., Zimmermann, A., Korc, M., Büchler, M.W. Ann. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Transforming growth factor-beta expression in human placenta and placental bed in third trimester normal pregnancy, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction. Lyall, F., Simpson, H., Bulmer, J.N., Barber, A., Robson, S.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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