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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nitric oxide involvement in the toxicity of hydroxyguanidine in leukaemia HL60 cells.

The free-radical intermediates and the stable products formed on one-electron oxidation of hydroxyguanidine (HOG) were investigated in order to suggest a mechanistic basis for HOG-induced cytotoxicity and cytostasis in leukaemia HL60 cells. The azide radical (generated radiolytically) reacted with HOG to produce a carbon-centred radical which in the absence of oxygen decays by a first-order process (k = 3.2 x 10(3) s-1) to yield nitric oxide (NO) and urea. Although the HOG radical reacts rapidly with oxygen (rate constant for O2 addition, k = 4.2 x 10(8) dm3 mol-1 s-1) this neither prevented the elimination of NO. nor generated alternative nitrogen oxides (e.g. peroxynitrite) capable of contributing to cellular oxidative stress. The detection of NO. in HL60 cells corroborated mechanistic studies that oxidative denitrification of HOG does not require catalysis by nitric oxide synthase. Quantitation of NO. by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (utilising a NO. -selective probe) shows higher amounts of NO. under anoxic conditions, reflecting competition for NO. with molecular oxygen in oxic cells. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 and myeloperoxidase activity decreased NO. production thereby identifying these enzyme systems as capable of oxidizing HOG in vitro. A correlation exists between the intracellular levels of NO. with both the cytotoxic and cytostatic effects of HOG within HL60 cells. A higher toxicity was observed with hypoxic than with oxic cells. The lower levels of NO. associated with aerobic conditions caused a G1 --> S block in the cell cycle which under anoxia potentiated NO. -induced apoptotic cell death.[1]


  1. Nitric oxide involvement in the toxicity of hydroxyguanidine in leukaemia HL60 cells. Everett, S.A., Smith, K.A., Patel, K.B., Dennis, M.F., Stratford, M.R., Wardman, P. Br. J. Cancer Suppl. (1996) [Pubmed]
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