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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Thrombin-induced phosphorylation of the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

Myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrates (MARCKS) is a prominent protein kinase C (PKC) substrate that is targeted to the plasma membrane by an aminoterminal myristoyl group. In its nonphosphorylated form, MARCKS cross-links Factin and binds calmodulin (CaM) reciprocally. However, upon phosphorylation by PKC, MARCKS release the actin or CaM MARCKS may therefore act as a CaM sink in resting cells and regulate CaM availability during cell activation. We have demonstrated previously that thrombin-induced myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and increased monolayer permeability in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) require both PKC-and CaM-dependent pathways. We therefore decided to investigate the phosphorylation of MARCKS in BPAEC to ascertain whether this occurs in a temporally relevant manner to participate in the thrombin-induced events. MARCKS is phosphorylated in response to thrombin with a time course similar to that seen with MLC. As expected, MARCKS is also phosphorylated by phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, but with a slower onset and more prolonged duration. Bradykinin also enhances MARCKS phosphorylation in BPAEC, but histamine does not. MARCKS is distributed evently between the membrane and cytosol in BPAEC, and neither thrombin nor PMA caused significant translocation of the protein. Specific PKC inhibitors attenuated MARCKS phosphorylation by either thrombin or PMA. Since thrombin-induced MLC phosphorylation is also attenuated by these inhibitors, MARCKS may be involved in MLC kinase activation and subsequent BPAEC contraction. W7, a CaM antagonist, enhances the phosphorylation of MARCKS. This was expected since CaM binding to MARCKS has been shown to decrease MARCKS phosphorylation by PKC. On the other hand, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and tyrphostin, attenuate MARCKS phosphorylation but have no effect on MLC phosphorylation, suggesting that MARCKS may be phosphorylated by kinases other than PKC. Phosphorylation of MARCKS outside the PKC phosphorylation domain would not be expected to induce the release of CaM. These data provide support for the hypothesis that MARCKS may serve as a regulator of CaM availability in BPAEC.[1]


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