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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Partition distribution of insecticides as a critical factor affecting their rates of absorption from water and relative toxicities to fish.

Loaches, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor), a common fish in Taiwan, were treated with DDT, dieldrin, and monocrotophos by continuous exposure in aqueous solutions (or suspensions) and by injection. DDT and dieldrin were 150 and 220 times more toxic, respectively, than monocrotophos, to the fish exposed in aqueous solutions (24-hr LC50), but only 1/9 and 1/4 as toxic as monocrotophos by injection (24-hr LD50). Results of GLC analyses indicate that, at the end of 24-hr exposure, 96.5% of DDT, 92.7% of dieldrin, and 14.3% of monocrotophos were absorbed by loaches from aqueous solutions. The initial rates of absorption for DDT and dieldrin were about 10 to 20 times faster than that for monocrotophos. The large differences in relative toxicity may be due to partition distribution which in turn caused differences in absorption, as DDT and dieldrin are lipophilic and monocrotophos is hydrophilic. Statistical analysis of the relationship between fish toxicities and partition coefficients supports the present finding. The coefficient of correlation is 0.70 between parition coefficients (benzene/water) and toxicities to fish (rainbow trout) of 12 organophosphorus insecticides, 0.74 between coefficients and corrected fish toxicities, and 0.96 between partition coefficients and corrected fish toxicities for organophosphates only. Results of analyses are significant at less than 1% probability level. Similar correlation was also obtained between partition coefficients for hexane/water and toxicities of 8 organophosphorus and 5 organochlorine insecticides to rainbow trout.[1]


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