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Gene Review

DDT  -  D-dopachrome tautomerase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: D-dopachrome decarboxylase, DDCT, Phenylpyruvate tautomerase II
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Disease relevance of DDT


Psychiatry related information on DDT

  • Total DDT levels increased with age, even when controlled for other independent variables also significantly associated with DDT: race, sex, fish consumption, years of residence, socioeconomic status, alcohol consumption, and serum triglyceride levels [6].
  • EDA-imprinted sol-gels, deposited as films on glass microscope slides, were shown to quantitatively detect DDT in water to a limit-of-detection of 50 ppt with a response time of <60 s [7].
  • The basic diagnostic procedure included an environmental toxicology questionnaire, psychological tests, a 45 minute interview, a physical examination and standard biomonitoring for cadmium, mercury, lead, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, DDT, DDE, DDD, and pentachlorophenol and a salivary test for mercury released from amalgam [8].
  • These findings are discussed in relation to previous reports of the behavior of An. minimus s.l., particularly in light of suggestions that An. minimus s.l. has changed its feeding behavior in response to DDT spraying [9].
  • The relationship between the level of DDT in the milk and the mother's age, parity, dietary habits, and place of usual residence were studied [10].

High impact information on DDT


Chemical compound and disease context of DDT


Biological context of DDT


Anatomical context of DDT


Associations of DDT with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of DDT

  • The DDT isomers and metabolites that bound the hER in vitro triggered estrogen receptor-mediated transcription of the lacZ reporter gene in the yeast systems [30].

Regulatory relationships of DDT

  • PR mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells was up regulated after administration of COU and DDT, whereas treatment with BPA and OCT did not effect PR mRNA expression [21].
  • DDT and estradiol-induced ER-dependent transcriptional activation of estrogen response elements (EREs) in stably transfected MVLN cells, and ERE activation by low doses of DDT was increased by insulin [17].
  • Dietary estrogens not only failed to suppress DDT-induced Cdk2 activity, but were found to slightly increase enzyme activity [31].

Other interactions of DDT

  • Numerous studies have demonstrated that resistance of a variety of insects to several different insecticides, including DDT, has been attributed to the overexpression of theta-class GSTs as well as certain CYPs [32].
  • Environmental estrogens, such as the pesticides methoxychlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, DDT, and the plasticizer nonylphenol activate either PXR or both PXR and CAR [33].
  • Except for phytoestrogens, most of the tested chemicals (DDT and its metabolites, aldrin, alpha- and beta-endosulfan, toxaphen, trans-nonachlor) show higher affinities for hPR than for hERalpha, indicating that the interaction with the progesterone receptor could contribute to the endocrine-disrupting effects imputed to these chemicals [34].
  • The combination of DDT and deltamethrin resistance in two strains with normal GST and G6PD characteristics suggests that a kdr-type nerve insensitivity mechanism may be involved [35].
  • This study constitutes the first report on the identification of P450 genes in a fungus that are responsive to environmentally significant pollutant chemicals (PAHs, DDT, long-chain alkyl phenols) and lignin derivatives [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DDT


  1. Molecular cloning of human D-dopachrome tautomerase cDNA: N-terminal proline is essential for enzyme activation. Nishihira, J., Fujinaga, M., Kuriyama, T., Suzuki, M., Sugimoto, H., Nakagawa, A., Tanaka, I., Sakai, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibition of androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional activity by DDT isomers and methoxychlor in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Maness, S.C., McDonnell, D.P., Gaido, K.W. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Cytotoxic effects and induction of cytochromes P450 1A1/2 by insecticides, in hepatic or epidermal cells: binding capability to the Ah receptor. Delescluse, C., Ledirac, N., de Sousa, G., Pralavorio, M., Lesca, P., Rahmani, R. Toxicol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast cancer. Hunter, D.J., Hankinson, S.E., Laden, F., Colditz, G.A., Manson, J.E., Willett, W.C., Speizer, F.E., Wolff, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos. Fry, D.M., Toone, C.K. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Cross-sectional study of a community with exceptional exposure to DDT. Kreiss, K., Zack, M.M., Kimbrough, R.D., Needham, L.L., Smrek, A.L., Jones, B.T. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Development and characterization of molecularly imprinted sol-gel materials for the selective detection of DDT. Graham, A.L., Carlson, C.A., Edmiston, P.L. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Toxicological and neuropsychological findings in patients presenting to an environmental toxicology service. Köppel, C., Fahron, G. J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Biting behavior and seasonal variation in the abundance of Anopheles minimus species A and C in Thailand. Rwegoshora, R.T., Sharpe, R.G., Baisley, K.J., Kittayapong, P. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Some factors related to sum-DDT levels in Ugandan mothers' breast milk. Ejobi, F., Kanja, L.W., Kyule, M.N., Nyeko, J., Opuda-Asibo, J. Public health. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Bats, rabies and DDT. Wells, L.F., Girard, K.F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Kelce, W.R., Stone, C.R., Laws, S.C., Gray, L.E., Kemppainen, J.A., Wilson, E.M. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Unusual response of DDT-resistant houseflies to carbinol analogues of DDT. Sawicki, R.M. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. Wolff, M.S., Toniolo, P.G., Lee, E.W., Rivera, M., Dubin, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. DDT and related compounds and risk of pancreatic cancer. Garabrant, D.H., Held, J., Langholz, B., Peters, J.M., Mack, T.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black, and Asian women. Krieger, N., Wolff, M.S., Hiatt, R.A., Rivera, M., Vogelman, J., Orentreich, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. DDT mimicks estradiol stimulation of breast cancer cells to enter the cell cycle. Dees, C., Askari, M., Foster, J.S., Ahamed, S., Wimalasena, J. Mol. Carcinog. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Irreversible binding and adrenocorticolytic activity of the DDT metabolite 3-methylsulfonyl-DDE examined in tissue-slice culture. Lindhe , O., Lund, B.O., Bergman , A., Brandt, I. Environ. Health Perspect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Conserved gene structure and genomic linkage for D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT) and MIF. Esumi, N., Budarf, M., Ciccarelli, L., Sellinger, B., Kozak, C.A., Wistow, G. Mamm. Genome (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Isolation of a new tautomerase monitored by the conversion of D-dopachrome to 5,6-dihydroxyindole. Odh, G., Hindemith, A., Rosengren, A.M., Rosengren, E., Rorsman, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of the environmental estrogens bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, p-tert-octylphenol and coumestrol on apoptosis induction, cell proliferation and the expression of estrogen sensitive molecular parameters in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Diel, P., Olff, S., Schmidt, S., Michna, H. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Development of androgen- and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays. Sonneveld, E., Jansen, H.J., Riteco, J.A., Brouwer, A., van der Burg, B. Toxicol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. DDT stimulates c-erbB2, c-met, and STATS tyrosine phosphorylation, Grb2-Sos association, MAPK phosphorylation, and proliferation of human breast epithelial cells. Shen, K., Novak, R.F. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of environmental antiandrogens on reproductive development in experimental animals. Gray, L.E., Ostby, J., Furr, J., Wolf, C.J., Lambright, C., Parks, L., Veeramachaneni, D.N., Wilson, V., Price, M., Hotchkiss, A., Orlando, E., Guillette, L. Hum. Reprod. Update (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Asymmetrical currents and sodium currents in Ranvier nodes exposed to DDT. Dubois, J.M., Bergman, C. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Environmental xenobiotics may disrupt normal endocrine function by interfering with the binding of physiological ligands to steroid receptors and binding proteins. Danzo, B.J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Antiandrogenic pesticides disrupt sexual characteristics in the adult male guppy Poecilia reticulata. Baatrup, E., Junge, M. Environ. Health Perspect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Evaluation of chemicals with endocrine modulating activity in a yeast-based steroid hormone receptor gene transcription assay. Gaido, K.W., Leonard, L.S., Lovell, S., Gould, J.C., Babaï, D., Portier, C.J., McDonnell, D.P. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Several environmental oestrogens are also anti-androgens. Sohoni, P., Sumpter, J.P. J. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcriptional activation of the human estrogen receptor by DDT isomers and metabolites in yeast and MCF-7 cells. Chen, C.W., Hurd, C., Vorojeikina, D.P., Arnold, S.F., Notides, A.C. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Dietary estrogens stimulate human breast cells to enter the cell cycle. Dees, C., Foster, J.S., Ahamed, S., Wimalasena, J. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Biotransformation enzyme polymorphism and pesticide susceptibility. Eaton, D.L. Neurotoxicology (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. CAR and PXR: xenosensors of endocrine disrupters? Kretschmer, X.C., Baldwin, W.S. Chem. Biol. Interact. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Recombinant human estrogen, androgen and progesterone receptors for detection of potential endocrine disruptors. Scippo, M.L., Argiris, C., Van De Weerdt, C., Muller, M., Willemsen, P., Martial, J., Maghuin-Rogister, G. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Changes in enzyme titres with age in four geographical strains of Aedes aegypti and their association with insecticide resistance. Mourya, D.T., Hemingway, J., Leake, C.J. Med. Vet. Entomol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Differential regulation and xenobiotic induction of tandem P450 monooxygenase genes pc-1 (CYP63A1) and pc-2 (CYP63A2) in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Doddapaneni, H., Yadav, J.S. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. DDT -- a novel domain in different transcription and chromosome remodeling factors. Doerks, T., Copley, R., Bork, P. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. A case-control study of self-reported exposures to pesticides and pancreas cancer in southeastern Michigan. Fryzek, J.P., Garabrant, D.H., Harlow, S.D., Severson, R.K., Gillespie, B.W., Schenk, M., Schottenfeld, D. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  39. Organochlorines and bone mineral density in Swedish men from the general population. Glynn, A.W., Michaëlsson, K., Lind, P.M., Wolk, A., Aune, M., Atuma, S., Darnerud, P.O., Mallmin, H. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Exposure assessment for workers applying DDT to control malaria in Veracruz, Mexico. Rivero-Rodriguez, L., Borja-Aburto, V.H., Santos-Burgoa, C., Waliszewskiy, S., Rios, C., Cruz, V. Environ. Health Perspect. (1997) [Pubmed]
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