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Chemical Compound Review

Brantur     4-methyl-N-(2-morpholin-4- ylethyl)-6...

Synonyms: Minaprina, minaprine, Cantor, Minaprinum, SureCN49371, ...
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Disease relevance of Cantor

  • Correspondence re: K. P. Cantor et al., pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnesota, Cancer Res., 52: 2447-2455, 1992 [1].
  • Minaprine is an amino-phenylpyridazine antidepressant reported to be relatively free of anticholinergic effects, cardiotoxicity, drowsiness, and weight gain [2].
  • Minaprine improves impairment of working memory induced by scopolamine and cerebral ischemia in rats [3].
  • Minaprine at 3.2 and 10 mg/kg administered IP immediately after blood recirculation and again 30 min before the runway test conducted 24 h after ischemia, significantly reduced increases in errors expected to occur after 5 min of ischemia [3].
  • Intussusception complicating intestinal intubation with a long Cantor tube: report of four cases [4].

Psychiatry related information on Cantor


High impact information on Cantor

  • Images in clinical medicine. Complication of Cantor-tube insertion [8].
  • In addition, recent studies have indicated that Eta-1 can enhance secretion of IgM and IgG by mixtures of macrophages and B cells (Patarca, R., M. A. Lampe, M. V. Iregai, and H. Cantor, manuscript in preparation) [9].
  • A scheme utilizing repeated cycles of assembly and disassembly was used to prepare tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) (Shelanski, M. L., Gaskin, F., and Cantor, C. R. (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70, 765-768) [10].
  • A phylogeny of the diatoms was inferred from comparisons of nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA coding regions using maximum likelihood, weighted maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining distance methods with Jukes and Cantor, Kimura, Gamma, van de Peer, and LogDet evolutionary models [11].
  • Following the discovery of the weak, competitive and reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting activity of minaprine (3c) (IC50 = 85 microM on homogenized rat striatum AChE), a series of 3-amino-6-phenylpyridazines was synthesized and tested for inhibition of AChE [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cantor


Biological context of Cantor


Anatomical context of Cantor


Associations of Cantor with other chemical compounds

  • These results suggest that minaprine attenuates the inhibitory effect of 5-HT on ACh release via PKC activation in rat hippocampus, and that the blockade of the K+ channel with PKC activation might be involved in the action of minaprine [24].
  • Involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) activation in the regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat hippocampal slices by minaprine, [3(2-morpholinoethylamino)-4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazine] was investigated [24].
  • In order to design a selective M1 muscarinic agonist, we synthesized SR 95639A (morpholinoethylamino-3-benzocyclohepta-(5,6-c)-pyridazine, dihydrochloride), a semi-rigid analogue of the aminopyridazine antidepressant drug minaprine [25].
  • Subchronic (5 mg/kg daily for 9 consecutive days) but not acute minaprine treatment enhanced in vivo dopamine release in the limbic part of the striatum of rats as revealed by intracerebral microdialysis [26].
  • The effects of minaprine on evoked field potentials recorded extracellularly in the synaptic layer (population excitatory postsynaptic potentials) and the granule cell body layer (population spike) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus were examined in urethane anesthetized rats [18].

Gene context of Cantor

  • 5-HT2 receptor antagonists, ketanserin and mianserin, prevented the effect of 5-HT as well as minaprine did [17].
  • A high level of growth hormone receptor (GHR) was detected on the hepatic membranes of the snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus argus Cantor) [27].
  • [Shelanski, M. L., Gaskin, F., & Cantor, C. R. (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 765-768] [28].
  • The results presented in this study suggest that minaprine inhibits MAO A mainly after being converted into active metabolites [29].
  • When minaprine in a dose of 50 mg/kg was given there was no decrease in the amplitude of hippocampal theta waves, and Nissl's degradation and the destruction and disappearance of the CA1 neurons diminished considerably [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cantor


  1. Correspondence re: K. P. Cantor et al., pesticides and other agricultural risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in Iowa and Minnesota, Cancer Res., 52: 2447-2455, 1992. Cantor, K.P., Blair, A., Brown, L.M., Burmeister, L.F., Everett, G. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Minaprine: an anticholinergic-free antidepressant? Results of a controlled trial of mianserin. Wheatley, D. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Minaprine improves impairment of working memory induced by scopolamine and cerebral ischemia in rats. Yamamoto, T., Yatsugi, S., Ohno, M., Furuya, Y., Kitajima, I., Ueki, S. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Intussusception complicating intestinal intubation with a long Cantor tube: report of four cases. Shub, H.A., Rubin, R.J., Salvati, E.P. Dis. Colon Rectum (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Minaprine for senile dementia. Passeri, M., Cucinotta, D., de Mello, M., Storchi, G., Roncucci, R., Bizière, K. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Computerised psychomotor performance testing: a comparative study of the single dose pharmacodynamics of minaprine and amitriptyline in young and elderly subjects. Kinirons, M.T., Jackson, S.H., Kalra, L., Trevit, R.T., Swift, C.G. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed dose trial of minaprine in patients with major depression. Amsterdam, J.D., Dunner, D.L., Fabre, L.F., Kiev, A., Rush, A.J., Goodman, L.I. Pharmacopsychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Images in clinical medicine. Complication of Cantor-tube insertion. Wien, F.E., Cooperman, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Dysregulated expression of the T cell cytokine Eta-1 in CD4-8- lymphocytes during the development of murine autoimmune disease. Patarca, R., Wei, F.Y., Singh, P., Morasso, M.I., Cantor, H. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Zinc ion-induced assembly of tubulin. Gaskin, F., Kress, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Evolution of the diatoms (Bacillariophyta). II. Nuclear-encoded small-subunit rRNA sequence comparisons confirm a paraphyletic origin for the centric diatoms. Medlin, L.K., Kooistra, W.H., Gersonde, R., Wellbrock, U. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Aminopyridazines as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Contreras, J.M., Rival, Y.M., Chayer, S., Bourguignon, J.J., Wermuth, C.G. J. Med. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of minaprine on cycloheximide-induced amnesia in mice. Nabeshima, T., Kawashima, K., Kameyama, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Cholinomimetic activities of minaprine. Worms, P., Kan, J.P., Steinberg, R., Terranova, J.P., Perio, A., Biziere, K. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Protective effect of minaprine against the abnormal changes of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by rat hippocampal slices induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia. Kodama, K., Shibata, S., Ueki, S. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of minaprine on synaptic transmission in the neocortex of the rat in vivo. Okuyama, S., Aihara, H. Neuropharmacology (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. 5-HT2 antagonists and minaprine block the 5-HT-induced inhibition of dopamine release from rat brain striatal slices. Muramatsu, M., Tamaki-Ohashi, J., Usuki, C., Araki, H., Chaki, S., Aihara, H. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of minaprine on electrical activity of the rat hippocampus in vivo. Okuyama, S., Aihara, H. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Involvement of the cytochrome P-450IID subfamily in minaprine 4-hydroxylation by human hepatic microsomes. Marre, F., Fabre, G., Lacarelle, B., Bourrie, M., Catalin, J., Berger, Y., Rahmani, R., Cano, J.P. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Double-blind comparative study of the antidepressant, unwanted and cardiac effects of minaprine and amitriptyline. Edwards, J.G., Dinan, T.G., Waller, D.G., Greentree, S.G. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Serotonin-2 receptor-mediated regulation of release of acetylcholine by minaprine in cholinergic nerve terminal of hippocampus of rat. Muramatsu, M., Tamaki-Ohashi, J., Usuki, C., Araki, H., Aihara, H. Neuropharmacology (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of minaprine on "delayed neuronal death" in mongolian gerbils with occluded common carotid arteries. Araki, H., Nojiri, M., Kimura, M., Aihara, H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Quantitative analysis of minaprine and some of its metabolites with application to kinetic studies in rats. Fong, M.H., Abbiati, A., Benfenati, E., Caccia, S. J. Chromatogr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Involvement of protein kinase C activation in regulation of acetylcholine release from rat hippocampal slices by minaprine. Chaki, S., Muramatsu, M., Otomo, S. Neurochem. Int. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Pharmacological characterization of the aminopyridazine SR 95639A, a selective M1 muscarinic agonist. Schumacher, C., Steinberg, R., Kan, J.P., Michaud, J.C., Bourguignon, J.J., Wermuth, C.G., Feltz, P., Worms, P., Biziere, K. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of subchronic minaprine on dopamine release in the ventral striatum and on immobility in the forced swimming test. Imperato, A., Obinu, M.C., Cabib, S., Cestari, V., Puglisi-Allegra, S. Neurosci. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Identification and characterization of growth hormone receptors in snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus argus cantor) liver. Sun, X., Zhu, S., Chan, S.S., Toresson, G., Cheng, C.H. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Conformation and assembly characteristics of tubulin and microtubule protein from bovine brain. Clark, D.C., Martin, S.R., Bayley, P.M. Biochemistry (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of the antidepressant minaprine on both forms of monoamine oxidase in the rat. Kan, J.P., Mouget-Goniot, C., Worms, P., Biziere, K. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Self-administration of minaprine in rhesus monkeys. Beardsley, P.M., Balster, R.L. Drug and alcohol dependence. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. A double-blind study of minaprine versus amitriptyline in major depression. Del Zompo, M., Bernardi, F., Burrai, C., Bocchetta, A. Neuropsychobiology (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Modelling cure rates using the Gompertz model with covariate information. Gieser, P.W., Chang, M.N., Rao, P.V., Shuster, J.J., Pullen, J. Statistics in medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
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