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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of putative human homologues of the yeast chromosome transmission fidelity gene, CHL1.

Helicases are components of numerous protein complexes, including those regulating transcription, translation, DNA replication and repair, splicing, and mitotic chromosome transmission. Helicases unwind double-stranded DNA and RNA homo- and hetero-duplexes. The yeast CHL1 helicase has been linked to maintenance of the high fidelity of chromosome transmission during mitosis. Mutations in this gene result in a 200-fold increase in the rate of aberrant chromosome segregation with a concomitant delay in the cell cycle at G2-M, suggesting that CHL1 is required for the maintenance of proper chromosome transmission. Two highly related human cDNA clones encoding proteins which are homologous to the yeast CHL1 gene product have been isolated. Here we show that these two distinct human CHL1-related mRNAs and proteins (hCHLR1 and hCHLR2) are expressed only in proliferating human cell lines. Quiescent normal human fibroblasts stimulated to re-enter the cell cycle by addition of serum begin to express the CHL1-related proteins as the cells enter S phase, concomitant with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Furthermore, expression of the CHL1-related mRNAs is lost when human K562 cells cease to proliferate and terminally differentiate in response to phorbol ester treatments. Human hCHLR expression is not extinguished during hemin-induced differentiation of the same cell line, which produces erythrocyte-like cells that continue to proliferate. These experiments are consistent with the requirement of this putative helicase during either S or G2-M phase but not G1. In vitro transcribed and translated hCHLR1 protein binds to both single- and double-stranded DNA, supporting the possibility that these proteins are DNA helicases. Finally, affinity-purified hCHLR1 antisera was used to demonstrate the localization of the hCHLR proteins to the nucleolus by indirect immunofluorescence as well as by cell fractionation.[1]


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