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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Analysis of tissue plasminogen activator specificity using peptidyl fluorogenic substrates.

A series of 54 fluorogenic substrates have been synthesized and evaluated for tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) hydrolysis in an attempt to create efficient sensitive substrates for tPA and to investigate substrate structure-efficiency correlations. All substrates contain the 6-amino-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (ANSN) leaving group, Arg in the P1 position, various amino acids in the P2 and P3 positions, and various substituents in the sulfonamide moiety of the leaving group (P' position). The majority of substrates have relatively low K(M) values (< 100 microM), reaching as low as 2.6 microM, and reasonably high k(cat) values (up to 3.6 s(-1)). These substrates have higher affinity, higher hydrolysis rates, and higher efficiency for two-chain tPA than for the single-chain form of this enzyme. Analysis of the P3 structure influence on substrate efficiency demonstrates that compounds which contain D-isomers of N-blocked bulky amino acids, such as Phe, Leu, and Val, in this position are more efficient for tPA than substrates with N-unblocked small amino acids (Ser or Pro) in the P3 position. The second-order rate constants and k(cat) values for substrate hydrolysis increase with decreases in the P2 amino acid hydrophobicity in the following manner: Leu < Val and Gly < Ser < Pro. Substrates which contain an ANSN leaving group had a higher affinity for tPA than substrates with p-nitroaniline or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin leaving groups. Analyses of substrate hydrolysis dependence on the substrate P' structure show that the k(cat) and the second-order rate constants increased with an increase in the size of monoalkyl substituent in the sulfonamide moiety, whereas substrates which contain either glycine methyl ester or a dialkyl group displayed the lowest efficiency for tPA. The substrate Boc-(p-F)Phe-Pro-Arg-ANSNHC2H5 allowed quantitation of tPA at a concentration as low as 1 pM, a concentration significantly lower than the plasma concentration of this protein. Evaluation of the activation of single-chain tPA by factor Xa demonstrates that prothrombinase is approximately 3-fold more efficient in activating sc-tPA than factor Xa alone, increasing the initial rate of activation from 0.0055 nM/s per 1 nM of factor Xa to 0.017 nM/s per 1 nM.[1]


  1. Analysis of tissue plasminogen activator specificity using peptidyl fluorogenic substrates. Butenas, S., Kalafatis, M., Mann, K.G. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
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