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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anticonvulsant activity of novel derivatives of 2- and 3-piperidinecarboxylic acid in mice and rats.

The relative ability of derivatives of 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid (2-PC; pipecolic acid) and 3-piperidinecarboxylic acid (3-PC; nipecotic acid) to block maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures, elevate the threshold for electroshock-induced seizures and be neurotoxic in mice was investigated. Protective index (PI) values, based on the MES test and rotorod performance, ranged from 1.3 to 4.5 for 2-PC benzylamides and from < 1 to > 7.2 for 3-PC derivatives. PI values based on elevation of threshold for electroshock-induced seizures and rotorod performance ranged from > 1.6 to > 20 for both types of derivatives. Since preliminary data indicated that benzylamide derivatives of 2-PC displace [3H]1-[1-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexyl]piperidine (TCP) binding to the phencyclidine (PCP) site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the micromolar range and such low affinity uncompetitive antagonists of the NMDA receptor-associated ionophore have been shown to be effective anticonvulsants with low neurological toxicity, the 2-PC derivatives were evaluated in rat brain homogenates for binding affinity to the PCP site. Although all compounds inhibited [3H]TCP binding, a clear correlation between pharmacological activity and binding affinity was not apparent. Select compounds demonstrated minimal ability to protect against pentylenetetrazol-, 4-aminopyridine- and NMDA-induced seizures in mice. Corneal and amygdala kindled rats exhibited different sensitivities to both valproic acid and the nonsubstituted 2-PC benzylamide, suggesting a difference in these two models. Enantiomers of the alpha-methyl substituted benzylamide of 2-PC showed some ability to reduce seizure severity in amygdala kindled rats.[1]


  1. Anticonvulsant activity of novel derivatives of 2- and 3-piperidinecarboxylic acid in mice and rats. Hinko, C.N., Crider, A.M., Kliem, M.A., Steinmiller, C.L., Seo, T.H., Ho, B., Venkatarangan, P., el-Assadi, A.A., Chang, H., Burns, C.M., Tietz, E.I., Andersen, P.H., Klitgaard, H. Neuropharmacology (1996) [Pubmed]
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