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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparative enzymatic properties of GapB-encoded erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli and phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

GapB-encoded protein of Escherichia coli and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH) share more than 40% amino acid identity. Most of the amino acids involved in the binding of cofactor and substrates to GAPDH are conserved in GapB-encoded protein. This enzyme shows an efficient non-phosphorylating erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (Zhao, G., Pease, A. J., Bharani, N., and Winkler, M. E. (1995) J. Bacteriol. 177, 2804-2812) but a low phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, whereas GAPDH shows a high efficient phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and a low phosphorylating erythrose-4-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. To identify the structural factors responsible for these differences, comparative kinetic and binding studies have been carried out on both GapB-encoded protein of Escherichia coli and GAPDH of Bacillus stearothermophilus. The KD constant of GapB-encoded protein for NAD is 800-fold higher than that of GAPDH. The chemical mechanism of erythrose 4-phosphate oxidation by GapB-encoded protein is shown to proceed through a two-step mechanism involving covalent intermediates with Cys-149, with rates associated to the acylation and deacylation processes of 280 s-1 and 20 s-1, respectively. No isotopic solvent effect is observed suggesting that the rate-limiting step is not hydrolysis. The rate of oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is 0.12 s-1 and is hydride transfer limiting, at least 2000-fold less efficient compared with that of erythrose 4-phosphate. Thus, it can be concluded that it is only the structure of the substrates that prevails in forming a ternary complex enzyme-NAD-thiohemiacetal productive (or not) for hydride transfer in the acylation step. This conclusion is reinforced by the fact that the rate of oxidation for erythrose 4-phosphate by GAPDH is 0.1 s-1 and is limited by the acylation step, whereas glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate acylation is efficient and is not rate-determining (>/=800 s-1). Substituting Asn for His-176 on GapB-encoded protein, a residue postulated to facilitate hydride transfer as a base catalyst, decreases 40-fold the kcat of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate oxidation. This suggests that the non-efficient positioning of the C-1 atom of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate relative to the pyridinium of the cofactor within the ternary complex is responsible for the low catalytic efficiency. No phosphorylating activity on erythrose 4-phosphate with GapB-encoded protein is observed although the Pi site is operative as proven by the oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Thus the binding of inorganic phosphate to the Pi site likely is not productive for attacking efficiently the thioacyl intermediate formed with erythrose 4-phosphate, whereas a water molecule is an efficient nucleophile for the hydrolysis of the thioacyl intermediate. Compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, this corresponds to an activation of the deacylation step by >/=4.5 kcal.mol-1. Altogether these results suggest subtle structural differences between the active sites of GAPDH and GapB-encoded protein that could be revealed and/or modulated by the structure of the substrate bound. This also indicates that a protein engineering approach could be used to convert a phosphorylating aldehyde dehydrogenase into an efficient non-phosphorylating one and vice versa.[1]


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