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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance genes mdr1, mdr3, and mrp in L1210 leukemia cells resistant to inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase.

L1210 MQ-580 is a murine leukemia cell line resistant to the cytotoxic activity of the alpha-(N)-heterocyclic carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone class of inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase. The line is cross-resistant to etoposide, daunomycin, and vinblastine. L1210 MQ-580 cells expressed 8-fold resistance to 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP), a relatively newly developed inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase. The accumulation of [14C]3-AP by L1210 MQ-580 cells was 5- to 6-fold less than by parental L1210 cells. An increased rate of efflux of 3-AP was responsible for the lower steady-state concentration of 3-AP in resistant cells. In reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays, L1210 MQ-580 cells were found to overexpress the multidrug resistance genes mdr1, mdr3, and mrp, but not the mdr2 gene, compared with parental L1210 cells. Measurement of the steady-state concentration of doxorubicin, a potential substrate for both the mdr and mrp gene products, demonstrated that L1210 MQ-580 cells accumulated 4-fold less anthracycline than parental cells. These findings indicate that drug efflux is a major determinant of the pattern of cross-resistance of L1210 MQ-580 cells. To extrapolate these observations to the human homologues of the mdr1, mdr3, and mrp murine genes, the effects of 3-AP were measured in L1210/VMDRC0.06 and NIH3T3 36-8-32 cells transfected with human MDR1 and MRP cDNAs, respectively. The transfectants were 2- to 3-fold resistant to the cytotoxic effects of 3-AP and accumulated less [14C]3-AP than their parental mock-transfected counterparts. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of 3-AP was significantly greater in two double mrp gene knockout cell lines than in parental W 9.5 embryonic stem cells. Thus, the results suggest that 3-AP is a substrate for both the P-glycoprotein and MRP and that baseline MRP expression has the capacity to exert a protective role against the toxicity of this agent.[1]


  1. Overexpression of the multidrug resistance genes mdr1, mdr3, and mrp in L1210 leukemia cells resistant to inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase. Rappa, G., Lorico, A., Liu, M.C., Kruh, G.D., Cory, A.H., Cory, J.G., Sartorelli, A.C. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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