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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Phosphorylation of two regulatory tyrosine residues in the activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase via alternative receptors.

Mutation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) impairs B cell maturation and function and results in a clinical phenotype of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Activation of Btk correlates with an increase in the phosphorylation of two regulatory Btk tyrosine residues. Y551 (site 1) within the Src homology type 1 (SH1) domain is transphosphorylated by the Src family tyrosine kinases. Y223 (site 2) is an autophosphorylation site within the Btk SH3 domain. Polyclonal, phosphopeptide-specific antibodies were developed to evaluate the phosphorylation of Btk sites 1 and 2. Crosslinking of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) or the mast cell Fcepsilon receptor, or interleukin 5 receptor stimulation each induced rapid phosphorylation at Btk sites 1 and 2 in a tightly coupled manner. Btk molecules were singly and doubly tyrosine-phosphorylated. Phosphorylated Btk comprised only a small fraction (</=5%) of the total pool of Btk molecules in the BCR-activated B cells. Increased dosage of Lyn in B cells augmented BCR-induced phosphorylation at both sites. Kinetic analysis supports a sequential activation mechanism in which individual Btk molecules undergo serial transphosphorylation (site 1) then autophosphorylation (site 2), followed by successive dephosphorylation of site 1 then site 2. The phosphorylation of conserved tyrosine residues within structurally related Tec family kinases is likely to regulate their activation.[1]


  1. Phosphorylation of two regulatory tyrosine residues in the activation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase via alternative receptors. Wahl, M.I., Fluckiger, A.C., Kato, R.M., Park, H., Witte, O.N., Rawlings, D.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
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