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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Relative contribution of human erythrocyte aldehyde dehydrogenase to the systemic detoxification of the oxazaphosphorines.

Detoxification of cyclophosphamide is effected, in part, by hepatic class 1 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-1)-catalyzed oxidation of aldophosphamide, a pivotal aldehyde intermediate, to the nontoxic metabolite, carboxyphosphamide. This enzyme is found in erythrocytes as well. Detoxification of aldophosphamide may also be effected by enzymes, viz. certain aldo-keto reductases, that catalyze the reduction of aldophosphamide to alcophosphamide. Such enzymes are also found in erythrocytes. Not known at the onset of this investigation was whether the contribution of erythrocyte ALDH-1 and/or aldo-keto reductases to the overall systemic detoxification of circulating aldophosphamide is significant. Thus, NAD-linked oxidation and NADPH-linked reduction of aldophosphamide catalyzed by relevant erythrocyte enzymes were quantified. ALDH-1-catalyzed oxidation of aldophosphamide (160 microM) to carboxyphosphamide occurred at a mean (+/- SD) rate of 5.0 +/- 1.4 atmol/min/rbc (red blood cell). Aldo-keto reductase-catalyzed reduction of aldophosphamide (160 microM) to alcophosphamide occurred at a much slower rate, viz. 0.3 +/- 0.2 atmol/min/rbc. Thus, at a pharmacologically relevant concentration of aldophosphamide, viz. 1 microM, estimated aggregate erythrocyte ALDH-1-catalyzed aldophosphamide oxidation, viz. 2.0 micromol/min, was only about 3% of estimated aggregate hepatic enzyme-catalyzed aldophosphamide oxidation, viz. 72 micromol/min; however, this rate is greater than the estimated flow-limited rate of aldophosphamide delivery to the liver by the blood, viz. 1.5 micromol/min. These observations/considerations suggest an important in vivo role for erythrocyte ALDH-1 in systemic aldophosphamide detoxification. Erythrocyte ALDH-1-effected oxidation of other aldehydes to their corresponding acids, e.g. retinaldehyde to retinoic acid, may also be of pharmacological and/or physiological significance since a wide variety of aldehydes are known to be substrates for ALDH-1.[1]


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