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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inhibition of embryonic retinoic acid synthesis by aldehydes of lipid peroxidation and prevention of inhibition by reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferases.

Inhibition of conceptal biosynthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid (t-RA) by aldehydes generated from lipid peroxidation was investigated. Oxidative conversion of all-trans-retinal (t-RAL, 18 microM) to t-RA catalyzed by rat conceptal cytosol (RCC) was sensitive to inhibition by trans-2-nonenal (tNE), nonyl aldehyde (NA), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE), and hexanal. With an initial molar ratio of aldehyde/t-RAL of 2:1, tNE, NA, and 4HNE caused 70, 65, and 40% reductions of t-RA synthesis, respectively. Hexanal reduced generation of t-RA by approximately 50% as the ratio of aldehyde/t-RAL was raised to 20:1. tNE significantly increased the Km of the reaction and kinetic analyses indicated a mixed competitive/noncompetitive inhibition. By contrast, analogous reactions catalyzed by adult rat hepatic cytosol (ARHC) were highly resistant to inhibition by the same aldehydes. Significant inhibition (> 40% reduction of t-RA generation) by 4HNE, NA, and tNE were achieved at high molar ratios of aldehyde/t-RAL (> 175:1). Hexanal did not inhibit the reaction significantly even at very high ratios of aldehyde/t-RAL (> 2,000:1). Interestingly, when reduced glutathione (GSH, 10 mM) alone or GSH plus glutathione S-transferase (GST) were added to RCC-catalyzed reactions, additions of tNE or 4HNE showed either no significant inhibition or a partial lack of inhibition. Results suggested that GSH-dependent conjugation with 4HNE proceeded slowly compared to conjugation with tNE. To test the hypothesis that GST-catalyzed GSH conjugation can effectively prevent inhibition of t-RA synthesis by aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation, triethyltin bromide (TEB, a potent inhibitor of GST, 20 microM) was added to ARHC-catalyzed reactions when hexanal or tNE were present in the incubations. Eighty and 60% of hexanal and tNE inhibition, respectively, were observed. This was apparently due to TEB blockage of GST-catalyzed GSH conjugation reactions and thus strongly supported the stated hypothesis.[1]


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