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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Endotoxin binding and elimination by monocytes: secretion of soluble CD14 represents an inducible mechanism counteracting reduced expression of membrane CD14 in patients with sepsis and in a patient with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

Little is known about the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elimination. We studied the endotoxin elimination capacities (EEC) of PBMCs of 15 healthy volunteers, 13 patients with sepsis, and 1 patient suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Although expression of CD14, the best-characterized receptor for LPS to date, was reduced from 93.6% +/- 0.8% in healthy subjects to 50.5% +/- 6.5% in patients with sepsis and was 0.3% in a patient with septic PNH, EEC were found to be unchanged. There was no difference in the amount of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) released by PBMCs of healthy donors and patients with sepsis. Anti-CD14 antibodies (MEM-18) completely suppressed EEC, binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled LPS to monocytes as determined by FACScan analysis, and TNF-alpha release in all three groups studied. The concentrations of soluble CD14 (sCD14) secreted by endotoxin-stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors and patients with sepsis amounted to 4.5 +/- 0.4 and 20.1 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, respectively. Based on our results, we suggest that PBMCs eliminate LPS by at least two different mechanisms; in healthy subjects, the membrane CD14 (mCD14) receptor is the most important factor for LPS elimination, while in patients with sepsis (including the septic state of PNH), increased sCD14 participates in LPS elimination. Secretion of sCD14 is strongly enhanced under conditions of low expression of mCD14 in order to counteract the reduction of mCD14 and maintain the function of monocytes. This sCD14 may substitute the role of mCD14 in LPS elimination during sepsis. The elimination of LPS by PBMCs correlates with the binding reaction and the secretion of TNF-alpha.[1]


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