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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of potassium antimony tartrate on rat erythrocyte phosphofructokinase activity.

In an earlier study, we observed a marked accumulation of antimony in erythrocytes of rats administered potassium antimony tartrate (Sb) in drinking water. This observation has raised concerns of possible adverse effects on the hematological systems. A study was therefore carried out to investigate the effects of Sb on phosphofructokinase ( PFK), a rate-limiting enzyme of erythrocyte glycolysis. Preincubation of PFK with Sb caused a marked inhibition of the enzyme with 95% loss of activity at 5 mM. In comparison, 5 mM sodium arsenite, a known enzyme inhibitor, reduced PFK activity by only 38%. Increasing the concentrations of fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) or magnesium had no effects on the inhibitory potency of Sb. Varying the concentrations of ATP and Sb produced a complex effect on PFK activity. At 1 mM ATP, 0.2 mM Sb was required for 50% inhibition (IC50) of PFK but only 0.05 mM Sb was required for the same inhibition when the concentration of ATP was reduced to 0.2 mM. Glutathione (2-10 mM) and hemoglobin (8-40 micronM partially protected the enzyme from the Sb effect, with the protection being more effective at low antimony concentrations. When Sb was added to assay mixtures after initiation of a PFK reaction with physiological concentrations of ATP (0.2 mM) and F6P (0.1 mM), PFK activity was approximately 50% inhibited by 0.5 mM Sb and completely inhibited by 5 mM Sb. In contrast, glucose utilization in whole blood was only 16% lower over an 8 hour incubation period in the presence of 5 mM Sb. It is concluded that while PFK is markedly inhibited by Sb under in vitro assay conditions, glycolysis in erythrocytes is not significantly affected except at very high Sb concentrations. The weak effect of Sb on glycolysis in erythrocytes may be due in part to the protective effect of hemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, glutathione on PFK.[1]


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