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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos affects form deprivation myopia.

PURPOSE: The effects of the anti-cholinesterase organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on the refractive development of the eye were examined. Form deprivation was used to induce eye growth to address the previously reported relationship between organophosphate pesticide use and the incidence of myopia. METHODS: Chickens, a well-established animal model for experimental myopia and organophosphate neurotoxicity, were dosed with chlorpyrifos (3 mg/kg per day, orally, from day 2 to day 9 after hatching) or corn oil vehicle (VEH) with or without monocular form deprivation (MFD) over the same period. The set of dependent measures included the refractive state of each eye measured using retinoscopy, axial dimensions determined with A-scan ultrasound, and intraocular pressure. RESULTS: Dosing with CPF yielded an inhibition of 35% butyrylcholinesterase in plasma and 45% acetylcholinesterase in brain. MFD resulted in a significant degree of myopia in form-deprived eyes resulting from significant lengthening of the vitreal chamber of the eye. CPF significantly reduced the effect of MFD, resulting in less myopic eyes (mean refraction: VEH-MFD = -16.2 +/- 2.3 diopters; CPF-MFD = -11.1 +/- 1.8 diopters) with significantly shorter vitreal chambers. Nonoccluded eyes were, on average, slightly hyperopic. Treatment with CPF for 1 week in the absence of MFD led to no significant change in ocular dimensions or refraction relative to controls. CONCLUSIONS: The use of form deprivation as a challenge suggests that CPF treatment interferes with the visual regulation of eye growth.[1]


  1. The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos affects form deprivation myopia. Geller, A.M., Abdel-Rahman, A.A., Peiffer, R.L., Abou-Donia, M.B., Boyes, W.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
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