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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Myopia

  • Preoperatively, the hydrogel material was ablated with a programmed correction of 5.0 diopters of hyperopia or myopia [1].
  • Constant light affects retinal dopamine levels and blocks deprivation myopia but not lens-induced refractive errors in chickens [2].
  • Therefore, flicker illumination preventing FDM may be induced by the hyperactivity of ganglion cells, then stimulates the release of DA from the retina and suppresses the development of myopia [3].

High impact information on Myopia

  • Myopia, or nearsightedness, is the most common human eye disorder [4].
  • Investigation of retinal neurochemistry in a well-defined chick model of form-deprivation myopia indicated that dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid are reduced in myopic as compared to control eyes [5].
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the expression of the melatonin receptor subtype proteins in chick ocular tissues and to examine the role of the circadian signaling molecule melatonin in normal ocular growth and the exaggerated ocular growth associated with the development of myopia [6].
  • Glucagon prevented ocular elongation and myopia and induced choroidal thickening in form-deprived eyes [7].
  • Atropine, a nonselective M-type antagonist, is used in the treatment of myopia, but has undesired ocular and systemic side effects [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Myopia

  • Retinal dopamine and form-deprivation myopia [5].
  • This significant reduction in experimentally induced myopia in atropine-injected MD chicks was associated with a marked reduction in the relative axial elongation of the deprived eye (0.21 mm) when compared to saline-injected or sham-injected MD chicks (1.04 mm and 1.00 mm) [9].
  • The relaxation of precontracted ciliary muscle by PGF2 alpha may help explain how a single topical dose of this prostanoid increases uveoscleral outflow and antagonizes resting myopia in the living monkey [10].
  • GABA, experimental myopia, and ocular growth in chick [11].
  • The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos affects form deprivation myopia [12].
  • In accordance with this, intraocular application of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist GW7647 resulted in up-regulation of apoA-I levels and in a significant reduction of experimental myopia [13].

Biological context of Myopia

  • Finally, atropine improved contrast sensitivity, at least at the lowest spatial frequency tested, a result that was previously obtained also in the chicken and could help to explain the inhibitory effect of atropine on myopia [14].

Anatomical context of Myopia


Gene context of Myopia

  • Refinement of the region by transmission disequilibrium testing suggests that a candidate gene (or genes) for this locus named myopia 2 (MYP2) is likely in an interval between markers D18S63 and D18S52 [20].
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that excimer laser treatment of high myopia may change the ALDH and GST activities, metabolism, and free radical balance of the cornea [21].
  • METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from the posterior scleras of form-deprived chick eyes, eyes recovering from deprivation myopia, and paired contralateral control eyes, and subjected to northern blot analysis analyses using cDNA probes to chicken gelatinase A and TIMP-2 [15].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and clinical features of a newly recognized peripapillary lesion specific to high myopia, peripapillary detachment in pathologic myopia (PDPM), in a large series of patients with high myopia [22].
  • Expression of bFGF and TGF-beta 2 in experimental myopia in chicks [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myopia

  • METHODS: Chickens, a well-established animal model for experimental myopia and organophosphate neurotoxicity, were dosed with chlorpyrifos (3 mg/kg per day, orally, from day 2 to day 9 after hatching) or corn oil vehicle (VEH) with or without monocular form deprivation (MFD) over the same period [12].
  • METHODS: The data from 554 children enrolled in the Orinda Longitudinal Study of Myopia (OLSM) as nonmyopes with baseline data from the third grade were evaluated to develop a predictive profile for later onset of juvenile myopia [24].
  • Using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED), we have asked whether changes in dopamine metabolism are restricted to the local retinal regions in which myopia was locally induced [25].
  • Six NMDA-treated eyes were also deprived of form vision by applying a translucent goggle 7 days after treatment, to determine whether myopia could still be induced or enhanced in NMDA-treated eyes [26].


  1. Photoablative inlay laser in situ keratomileusis (PAI-LASIK) in the rabbit model. Peyman, G.A., Beyer, C.F., Bezerra, Y., Vincent, J.M., Arosemena, A., Friedlander, M.H., Hoffmann, L., Kangeler, J., Roussau, D. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Constant light affects retinal dopamine levels and blocks deprivation myopia but not lens-induced refractive errors in chickens. Bartmann, M., Schaeffel, F., Hagel, G., Zrenner, E. Vis. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The choroidal blood flow response after flicker stimulation in chicks. Shih, Y.F., Lin, S.Y., Huang, J.K., Jian, S.W., Lin, L.L., Hung, P.T. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Evidence that a locus for familial high myopia maps to chromosome 18p. Young, T.L., Ronan, S.M., Drahozal, L.A., Wildenberg, S.C., Alvear, A.B., Oetting, W.S., Atwood, L.D., Wilkin, D.J., King, R.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Retinal dopamine and form-deprivation myopia. Stone, R.A., Lin, T., Laties, A.M., Iuvone, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Melatonin receptors in chick ocular tissues: implications for a role of melatonin in ocular growth regulation. Rada, J.A., Wiechmann, A.F. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Glucagon receptor agonists and antagonists affect the growth of the chick eye: a role for glucagonergic regulation of emmetropization? Vessey, K.A., Lencses, K.A., Rushforth, D.A., Hruby, V.J., Stell, W.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of pirenzepine on pupil size and accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Ostrin, L.A., Frishman, L.J., Glasser, A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Atropine reduces experimental myopia and eye enlargement via a nonaccommodative mechanism. McBrien, N.A., Moghaddam, H.O., Reeder, A.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Prostaglandin F2 alpha effects on isolated rhesus monkey ciliary muscle. Poyer, J.F., Millar, C., Kaufman, P.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. GABA, experimental myopia, and ocular growth in chick. Stone, R.A., Liu, J., Sugimoto, R., Capehart, C., Zhu, X., Pendrak, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos affects form deprivation myopia. Geller, A.M., Abdel-Rahman, A.A., Peiffer, R.L., Abou-Donia, M.B., Boyes, W.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a "STOP" signal for myopia. Bertrand, E., Fritsch, C., Diether, S., Lambrou, G., Müller, D., Schaeffel, F., Schindler, P., Schmid, K.L., van Oostrum, J., Voshol, H. Mol. Cell Proteomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Contrast sensitivity of wildtype mice wearing diffusers or spectacle lenses, and the effect of atropine. Schmucker, C., Schaeffel, F. Vision Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Gelatinase A and TIMP-2 expression in the fibrous sclera of myopic and recovering chick eyes. Rada, J.A., Perry, C.A., Slover, M.L., Achen, V.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Immunocytochemical characterization of quisqualic acid- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity in the retina of chicks. Fischer, A.J., Seltner, R.L., Poon, J., Stell, W.K. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Basic fibroblast growth factor, its high- and low-affinity receptors, and their relationship to form-deprivation myopia in the chick. Rohrer, B., Tao, J., Stell, W.K. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Apomorphine blocks form-deprivation myopia in chickens by a dopamine D2-receptor mechanism acting in retina or pigmented epithelium. Rohrer, B., Spira, A.W., Stell, W.K. Vis. Neurosci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of intravitreal injection of atropine on the proliferation of scleral chondrocyte in vivo. Wang, I.J., Shih, Y.F., Tseng, H.S., Huang, S.H., Lin, L.L., Hung, P.T. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of Lipin 2 as a candidate gene for autosomal dominant 1 high-grade myopia. Zhou, J., Young, T.L. Gene (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activity after excimer laser keratectomy in guinea pigs. Bilgihan, K., Bilgihan, A., Hasanreisoğlu, B., Turkozkan, N. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Characteristics of peripapillary detachment in pathologic myopia. Shimada, N., Ohno-Matsui, K., Yoshida, T., Yasuzumi, K., Kojima, A., Kobayashi, K., Futagami, S., Tokoro, T., Mochizuki, M. Arch. Ophthalmol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of bFGF and TGF-beta 2 in experimental myopia in chicks. Seko, Y., Shimokawa, H., Tokoro, T. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Ocular predictors of the onset of juvenile myopia. Zadnik, K., Mutti, D.O., Friedman, N.E., Qualley, P.A., Jones, L.A., Qui, P., Kim, H.S., Hsu, J.C., Moeschberger, M.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Concentrations of biogenic amines in fundal layers in chickens with normal visual experience, deprivation, and after reserpine application. Ohngemach, S., Hagel, G., Schaeffel, F. Vis. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity causes myopia in hatched chicks. Fischer, A.J., Seltner, R.L., Stell, W.K. Can. J. Ophthalmol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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