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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

CTLA-4 promoter variants in patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are T-cell mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders with a genetic predisposition. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) molecule is the predominant receptor for B7 on activated T cells and represents a negative regulator for T-cell function. Since the CTLA-4-guanine at position 49 of exon 1 is associated with susceptibility to GD as well as to HT and IDDM, we investigated a recently detected cytosine/thymine substitution at position -318 within the CTLA-4 promoter region in patients with GD and HT. 125 patients with GD were significantly more often homozygous for cytosine (86% vs. 73% in controls, P=0.006) and less frequently heterozygous for cytosine and thymine (14% vs. 27%, P=0.008). In 64 patients with HT, the distribution was similar but not significant (81% homozygous for cytosine and 16% heterozygous). When correlating the promoter and the exon 1 polymorphism we found the strongest linkage between thymine (promoter) and adenine (exon 1). In conclusion, a promoter variant of the CTLA-4 gene represents an additional risk marker for GD and HT, but their predisposition is linked to the exon 1 alleles.[1]


  1. CTLA-4 promoter variants in patients with Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Braun, J., Donner, H., Siegmund, T., Walfish, P.G., Usadel, K.H., Badenhoop, K. Tissue Antigens (1998) [Pubmed]
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