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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Enhanced expressions of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase and elevation of reduced glutathione level in cyclophosphamide-resistant human leukemia cells.

Elevation of activity and mRNA level of a cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1), which oxidizes aldophosphamide, was previously observed in a cyclophosphamide-resistant murine leukemia cell line. However, changes in other enzyme(s) which may detoxify the drug or produce anti-alkylating agent(s), have not been examined. The human leukemia cell line, K562, was made 30-fold resistant against 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4HC) by exposing the cells to increasing concentrations of the drug. Resistance against cisplatin was also increased by about 3-fold. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and ALDH1 were elevated more than 7-fold in the resistant cells. The mRNA level of the two enzymes was also proportionally elevated. The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) was higher in the resistant cells (i.e., 21.1 versus 4.68 nmole per 10(6) cells), while activities of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione synthetase, and the expressions of other human ALDH genes were not increased in the resistant cells. These findings suggest that the acquired resistance against 4HC is a consequence of transcriptional activation of two genes, i.e., one encoding the G6PD, a major enzyme regenerating anti-alkylating GSH, and the other encoding ALDH1, which has a high activity for oxidation of aldophosphamide derived from 4HC.[1]


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