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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Neuronal damage and plasticity identified by microtubule-associated protein 2, growth-associated protein 43, and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity after focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An objective of therapeutic intervention after cerebral ischemia is to promote improved functional outcome. Improved outcome may be associated with a reduction of the volume of cerebral infarction and the promotion of cerebral plasticity. In the developing brain, neuronal growth is concomitant with expression of particular proteins, including microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43), and cyclin D1. In the present study we measured the expression of select proteins associated with neurite damage and plasticity (MAP-2 and GAP-43) as well as cell cycle (cyclin D1) after induction of focal cerebral ischemia in the rat. METHODS: Brains from rats (n=28) subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion and 6 hours, 12 hours, and 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days (n=4 per time point) of reperfusion and control sham-operated (n=3) and normal (n=2) rats were processed by immunohistochemistry with antibodies raised against MAP-2, GAP-43, and cyclin D1. Double staining of these proteins for cellular colocalization was also performed. RESULTS: Loss of immunoreactivity of both MAP-2 and GAP-43 was observed in most damaged neurons in the ischemic core. In contrast, MAP-2, GAP-43, and cyclin D1 were selectively increased in morphologically intact or altered neurons localized to the ischemic core at an early stage (eg, 6 hours) of reperfusion and in the boundary zone to the ischemic core (penumbra) during longer reperfusion times. CONCLUSIONS: The selective expressions of the neuronal structural proteins (MAP-2 in dendrites and GAP-43 in axons) and the cyclin D1 cell cycle protein in neurons observed in the boundary zone to the ischemic core are suggestive of compensatory and repair mechanisms in ischemia-damaged neurons after transient focal cerebral ischemia.[1]


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