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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Isolation of genes negatively or positively co-expressed with human recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) by differential display PCR (DD RT-PCR).

Differential display PCR (DD RT-PCR) has been extensively used for analysis of differential gene expression, but continues to be hampered by technical limitations that impair its effectiveness. In order to isolate novel genes co-expressing with human RAG1, we have developed an effective, multi-tiered screening/purification approach which effectively complements the standard DD RT-PCR methodology. In 'primary' screens, standard DD RT-PCR was used, detecting 22 reproducible differentially expressed amplicons between clonally related cell variants with differential constitutive expression of RAG mRNAs. 'Secondary' screens used differential display (DD) amplicons as probes in low and high stringency northern blotting. Eight of 22 independent DD amplicons detected nine independent differentially expressed transcripts. 'Tertiary' screens used reconfirmed amplicons as probes in northern analysis of multiple RAG-and RAG+sources. Reconfirmed DD amplicons detected six independent RAG co-expressing transcripts. All DD amplicons reconfirmed by northern blot were a heterogeneous mixture of cDNAs, necessitating further purification to isolate single cDNAs prior to subcloning and sequencing. To effectively select the appropriate cDNAs from DD amplicons, we excised and eluted the cDNA(s) directly from regions of prior northern blots in which differentially expressed transcripts were detected. Sequences of six purified cDNA clones specifically detecting RAG co-expressing transcripts included matches to portions of the human RAG2 and BSAP regions and to four novel partial cDNAs (three with homologies to human ESTs). Overall, our results also suggest that even when using clonally related variants from the same cell line in addition to all appropriate internal controls previously reported, further screening and purification steps are still required in order to efficiently and specifically isolate differentially expressed genes by DD RT-PCR.[1]


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