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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Functional regulation of tyrosinase and LAMP gene family of melanogenesis and cell death in immortal murine melanocytes after repeated exposure to ultraviolet B.

This study characterizes the induction of melanogenesis and the expression of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) gene families in the cultured melanocyte lines of non-agouti mice with four major genetic loci, i.e. melan-a2 (black, wild type), melan-b (brown, TRP-1 mutation), melan-s (black, piebaldism mutation) and melan-c (white, tyrosinase mutation) in response to repeated exposure to ultraviolet (UV) B (5 mJ/cm2, 7 consecutive days). Electron microscopy showed that new melanogenesis was induced in melan-a2, melan-s and melan-b melanocytes. Melan-a2, melan-s and melan-b showed an almost twofold increase in tyrosinase activity and gene expression with increased synthesis of melanosomes, although melan-b showed a minimum increase in tyrosinase activity. There was a twofold upregulation of LAMP-1 mRNA but no alteration in LAMP-2 and LAMP-3 mRNA expression in melan-a2, while there was no alteration in LAMP-1 mRNA expression but increased expression of LAMP-2 and LAMP-3 mRNA in melan-s, LAMP-3 showing a higher increase. Melan-b cells showed the same gene expression of LAMP-1, LAMP-2 and LAMP-3 as that of non-UV exposed cells. All three lines, however, exhibited simultaneously cell death, melan-b reaching the highest rate of cell death (96.5%). In contrast, melan-c, which did not have any tyrosinase activity with failure of melanogenesis induction, expressed all the mRNAs of the tyrosinase and LAMP gene families, but was not associated with any significant melanocyte death. Our study indicated: (i) that melanogenesis induction and melanocyte death are two photobiological processes occurring simultaneously after repeated UVB exposure, (ii) that in response to an upregulation of tyrosinase mRNA and enzymic activity, there was a co-ordinated upregulation of the LAMP-1 gene in wild type melan-a2, while no upregulation was found in melan-s and melan-b mutants, and (iii) that UV-induced melanocyte death is related to the upregulation of the tyrosinase gene, induction of new melanogenesis and mutation of the TRP-1 gene in immortal murine melanocytes.[1]


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