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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of positive and negative regulator elements for the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 gene.

We have identified an IL-10 inducible enhancer (HTE) (5'-CACGATGACTCATCACTGTTGAAAGACA-3') (-864 to -836 bp) and associated silencer element ( HTS) (5'-CCACTGGCCCATCGTATAT-3') (-1284 to -1266 bp) in the 5' promoter region of the human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) gene. Chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT), electrophoretic migration shift assays (EMSAs), and DNase footprinting revealed that IL-10 (15 ng/ml for 1-2 h) induced the HTE enhancer. In comparison, phorbol ester stimulated the HTS silencer and blocked IL-10's effects in a dose-dependent, orientation- and position-independent fashion, suggesting that HTS is a true silencer element. EMSAs combined with deletion and mutation analysis of the HTE and HTS elements confirmed these observations. Finally, Northern blot, Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and ELISA analysis showed that IL-10 (15 ng/ml) induced TIMP-1 expression (approximately 10-fold by 18 h), whereas PMA (100 ng/ml) inhibited the stimulatory effects of IL-10 on TIMP-1 expression. The data indicate that HTE and HTS function as positive and negative regulatory elements that control human TIMP-1 expression.[1]


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