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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Accumulation and metabolism of low density lipoprotein-derived cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide and hydroxide by macrophages.

Cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide (CLOOH) and hydroxide (CLOH) are present in human atheroma. The intracellular metabolism of low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived CLOOH and CLOH remain undefined because extensive free radical-mediated LDL oxidation, which modifies LDL apolipoprotein B sufficiently to allow endocytosis by the scavenger receptor (ScR), also degrades CLOOH and CLOH. This problem was approached by first acetylating LDL lysine residues (AcLDL) to achieve protein modification, then exposing AcLDL to the aqueous radical donor 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) HCl (AAPH), to generate mildly oxidized AcLDL (OxAcLDL). Murine peritoneal macrophages incubated with OxAcLDL accumulated large quantities of CE and small, non-toxic quantities of CLOOH and CLOH in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and accumulation was inhibited by fucoidin. Inhibition of acyl CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase during loading did not inhibit the accumulation of either CLOOH or CLOH, whereas NH4Cl decreased intracellular clearance of accumulated CLOOH from 68.3 +/- 1.7% to 35.3 +/- 1.0% over 12 h, suggesting lysosomal or pre-lysosomal accumulation. Intracellular clearance of unoxidized lipoprotein-derived CE decreased from 84.0 +/- 5.9% to 43.1 +/- 2.3% over 12 h when cells were loaded with AcLDL or OxAcLDL, respectively. Aggregation of mildly oxidized LDL, even without acetylation, also promoted cellular accumulation of CLOOH and CLOH. We conclude that intracellular accumulation of cholesteryl linoleate hydroperoxide and cholesteryl linoleate hydroxide can follow charge modification or aggregation of mildly oxidized LDL, and that LDL-derived oxidation products may inhibit hydrolysis of LDL-derived CE in foam cell macrophages.[1]


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