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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

4-Defect repair of grade 4 cystocele.

PURPOSE: The 4-defect repair of grade 4 cystocele corrects discrete and severe deficiencies of vesicourethral support. We describe this technique used during pelvic reconstruction in 130 women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 3-year period 130 patients (age range 35 to 96 years) underwent repair of grade 4 cystocele using the 4-defect repair technique. Cystocele repair had been performed in 60 patients (46%) and hysterectomy had been performed in 85 (65%). A "goalpost incision" is used in the vaginal wall to facilitate separation of the wall from underlying perivesical fascia, entry into the retropubic space, and exposure of the urethropelvic ligament, cardinal ligament and perivesical fascia. The 4 polypropylene sutures are used to provide an anterior vaginal wall sling which is modified to incorporate perivesical fascia and cardinal ligaments. Central defect repair is achieved by approximation of the cardinal ligaments and midline plication of the perivesical fascia over absorbable mesh. RESULTS: A total of 112 patients were available for followup which ranged from 6 to 42 months (mean 21). Repair of grade 4 cystocele was accompanied by other transvaginal repairs in 94 patients (83%), including rectocele repair in 81, hysterectomy in 22 and enterocele repair in 31. Of the patients 92% had excellent objective and subjective results for anatomical cystocele repair. Of the patients with preoperative stress urinary incontinence 90% had excellent or good subjective results. De novo urge incontinence was seen in 7% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The 4-defect repair technique relies on anatomical restoration of 4 distinct deficiencies of pelvic support and is highly effective for relief of symptoms of grade 4 cystocele.[1]


  1. 4-Defect repair of grade 4 cystocele. Safir, M.H., Gousse, A.E., Rovner, E.S., Ginsberg, D.A., Raz, S. J. Urol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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