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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Poor response to activated protein C as a prominent risk predictor of advanced atherosclerosis and arterial disease.

BACKGROUND: The potential role of activated protein C (APC) resistance in arterial thrombosis and disease is a matter of ongoing controversy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the present population-based survey, a random sample of 826 men and women underwent high-resolution duplex ultrasound scanning of the carotid and femoral arteries. Response to APC was expressed in APC ratios. Subjects were tested for the factor V Leiden mutation. The risk of carotid stenosis increased gradually with decreasing response to APC (adjusted OR [95% CI] for a 1-U decrease of response to APC, 1.6 [1. 2 to 2.2]), as did the risk of femoral artery stenosis (1.7 [1.3 to 2.3]) and prevalent cardiovascular disease (1.4 [1.1 to 2.0]). The association between low APC ratio and atherosclerotic vascular disease applied equally to subjects with the factor V Leiden mutation and those without. Our study identified various nongenetic determinants of poor response to APC in the general population, including behavioral, hormonal, and environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed an independent and gradual association between low response to APC and both advanced atherosclerosis (stenosis) and arterial disease. Resistance to APC due to factor V Leiden mutation was only one facet of this relationship.[1]


  1. Poor response to activated protein C as a prominent risk predictor of advanced atherosclerosis and arterial disease. Kiechl, S., Muigg, A., Santer, P., Mitterer, M., Egger, G., Oberhollenzer, M., Oberhollenzer, F., Mayr, A., Gasperi, A., Poewe, W., Willeit, J. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
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