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MeSH Review

Carotid Stenosis

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Disease relevance of Carotid Stenosis


High impact information on Carotid Stenosis

  • CONCLUSION: Severe carotid stenosis is associated with a higher risk for cerebrovascular events, but the power of repeated ultrasonography to predict ischemic events is limited by low incidence rates and low rates of progression [6].
  • CONCLUSION: Aspirin did not have a significant long-term protective effect in asymptomatic patients with high-grade (> or = 50%) carotid stenosis [7].
  • Homocysteine levels were performed on fasting blood samples that had been stored at -70 degrees C. Atherosclerosis was defined as either a history of clinical disease, an internal carotid stenosis of > or = 40% by duplex scan, or an ankle/arm pressure ratio of < 0 [8].
  • Estrogen users also had lower levels of subclinical disease as measured by carotid intimal-medial thickness, carotid stenosis grade, ECG left ventricular mass, and Doppler mitral peak flow velocities (each P < .02) [9].
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of 175 cervical carotid stenoses treated with elective CAS from April 2001 to February 2005 [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Carotid Stenosis

  • Carotid stenosis was not usefully predictive of stroke in patients with AF who were given aspirin or warfarin [11].
  • METHODS: We measured the maximum percentage reduction in luminal diameter on the intra-arterial digital subtraction angiograms of 56 symptomatic patients with extracranial internal carotid stenosis (n = 77) or occlusion (n = 20) [12].
  • Ticlopidine was more effective in patients without carotid stenosis [13].
  • To identify metabolic and other concomitants of a single important type of atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease, 75 patients with angiographically and surgically proven internal carotid stenosis were compared with age and sex matched control subjects with respect to plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose [14].
  • In patients with carotid stenosis, hydralazine increased, whereas propranolol reduced, the occurrence of abnormal high-velocity flow patterns associated with turbulence and vortex formation [15].

Biological context of Carotid Stenosis


Anatomical context of Carotid Stenosis

  • RESULTS: Cerebral vasomotor reactivity was estimated as good (> 40% increase of blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery ipsilateral to the carotid stenosis after undergoing the Diamox test) in 23 patients; it was impaired in the other 21 [21].
  • Significant differences in ophthalmic artery pressures as measured by oculopneumoplethysmography (OPPG), and significant delays in ocular pulse arrival time combined with characteristic recorded bruits as determined by oculoplethysmography/carotid phonoangiography (OPG/CPA) were considered as an index of carotid stenosis [22].
  • We evaluated the hemodynamic features of the posterior circulation in patients with severe carotid stenosis by assessing and comparing cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) in the middle cerebral (MCA) and vertebral arteries (VA) by transcranial Doppler and the Diamox (1 g acetazolamide i.v.) test [23].

Gene context of Carotid Stenosis

  • In asymptomatic patients and in patients with a contralateral carotid stenosis of >50%, however, the observed reduction of VEGF did not reach statistical significance [24].
  • CONCLUSIONS: CCR5 Delta 32 deletion mutation is significantly more frequent in patients with AAA than in control subjects and in both patients with PAOD and carotid stenosis, and could be a factor that differentiates AAA from PAOD, and ruptured AAAs from AAAs that can be electively repaired [25].
  • However, it is not clear whether the circulating levels of IL-8 and VEGF correlate with the extents of carotid stenosis [26].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Homozygosity for the 6A allele of the MMP-3 promoter is associated with carotid stenosis and, in association with MMP-1 2G homozygosity, predicts an increased risk of ICA stenosis [27].
  • In conclusion, transplanted patients with atheromatous plaques, calcification, and carotid stenosis have a greater degree of hypercholesterolemia and lower antioxidant activity (lower GPx) [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carotid Stenosis


  1. Cumulative effects of high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and cigarette smoking on carotid stenosis. Wilson, P.W., Hoeg, J.M., D'Agostino, R.B., Silbershatz, H., Belanger, A.M., Poehlmann, H., O'Leary, D., Wolf, P.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Course of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with carotid artery occlusions. Widder, B., Kleiser, B., Krapf, H. Stroke (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Gene polymorphism of apolipoprotein AI, the major protein of high density lipoprotein in predicting stroke risk among white and black subjects. Yatsu, F.M., Kasturi, R., Alam, R. Stroke (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Blood flow reactivity to hypercapnia in strictly unilateral carotid disease: preliminary results. Levine, R.L., Dobkin, J.A., Rozental, J.M., Satter, M.R., Nickles, R.J. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Incidence and mechanism of post-carotid endarterectomy hypertension. Skydell, J.L., Machleder, H.I., Baker, J.D., Busuttil, R.W., Moore, W.S. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Predictive power of duplex ultrasonography in asymptomatic carotid disease. Lewis, R.F., Abrahamowicz, M., Côté, R., Battista, R.N. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Lack of effect of aspirin in asymptomatic patients with carotid bruits and substantial carotid narrowing. The Asymptomatic Cervical Bruit Study Group. Côté, R., Battista, R.N., Abrahamowicz, M., Langlois, Y., Bourque, F., Mackey, A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. High homocysteine levels are independently related to isolated systolic hypertension in older adults. Sutton-Tyrrell, K., Bostom, A., Selhub, J., Zeigler-Johnson, C. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Associations of postmenopausal estrogen use with cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in older women. The CHS Collaborative Research Group. Manolio, T.A., Furberg, C.D., Shemanski, L., Psaty, B.M., O'Leary, D.H., Tracy, R.P., Bush, T.L. Circulation (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Carotid stenting done exclusively by vascular surgeons: first 175 cases. Eskandari, M.K., Longo, G.M., Matsumura, J.S., Kibbe, M.R., Morasch, M.D., Cardeira, K.R., Pearce, W.H. Ann. Surg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Carotid stenosis in patients with atrial fibrillation. Prevalence, risk factors, and relationship to stroke in the Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study. Kanter, M.C., Tegeler, C.H., Pearce, L.A., Weinberger, J., Feinberg, W.M., Anderson, D.C., Gomez, C.R., Rothrock, J.F., Helgason, C.M., Hart, R.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Between-method correlation in quantifying internal carotid stenosis. Sitzer, M., Fürst, G., Fischer, H., Siebler, M., Fehlings, T., Kleinschmidt, A., Kahn, T., Steinmetz, H. Stroke (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Prevention of stroke with ticlopidine: who benefits most? TASS Baseline and Angiographic Data Subgroup. Grotta, J.C., Norris, J.W., Kamm, B. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Concomitants of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis. Duncan, G.W., Lees, R.S., Ojemann, R.G., David, S.S. Stroke (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Hemodynamic effects of antihypertensive drugs. Possible implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis. Spence, J.D. Hypertension (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Heterogeneity of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in carotid artery disease. Duncan, D.B., Fink, G.R., Wirth, M., Löttgen, J., Pawlik, G., Heiss, W.D. J. Nucl. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. The -174G/C polymorphism of IL-6 is useful to screen old subjects at risk for atherosclerosis or to reach successful ageing. Giacconi, R., Cipriano, C., Albanese, F., Boccoli, G., Saba, V., Olivieri, F., Franceschi, C., Mocchegiani, E. Exp. Gerontol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Evaluation of impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation by the Mueller manoeuvre. Reinhard, M., Hetzel, A., Lauk, M., Lücking, C.H. Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Smoking, blood pressure and serum albumin are major determinants of carotid atherosclerosis in dialysis patients. CREED Investigators. Cardiovascular Risk Extended Evaluation in Dialysis patients. Malatino, L.S., Benedetto, F.A., Mallamaci, F., Tripepi, G., Zoccali, C., Parlongo, S., Cutrupi, S., Marino, C., Panuccio, V., Garozzo, M., Candela, V., Bellanuova, I., Cataliotti, A., Rapisarda, F., Fatuzzo, P., Bonanno, G., Seminara, G., Stancanelli, B., Tassone, F., Labate, C. J. Nephrol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Evaluation of hemodynamic effects of extracranial carotid stenoses by adenosine-induced vasodilatation in combination with 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT. Ussov, W.Y., Plotnikov, M.P., Yaroshevsky, S.P., Shipulin, V.M., Sokolov, A.A. Nuclear medicine review. Central & Eastern Europe : journal of Bulgarian, Czech, Macedonian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Yugoslav societies of nuclear medicine and Ukrainian Society of Radiology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Is impaired cerebral vasomotor reactivity a predictive factor of stroke in asymptomatic patients? Gur, A.Y., Bova, I., Bornstein, N.M. Stroke (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Limitations of noninvasive evaluation of carotid occlusive disease. Herrmann, J.B., Korgaonkar, M., Cutler, B.S. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Cerebral vasomotor reactivity of the posterior circulation in patients with carotid occlusive disease. Gur, A.Y., Bornstein, N.M. Eur. J. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Changes in circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 after carotid endarterectomy. Papalambros, E., Georgopoulos, S., Sigala, F., Vourliotakis, G., Chrisostomidis, G., Venetsanou, K., Hadjoulis, G., Felekouras, E., Bastounis, E. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Genetic risk factor characterizes abdominal aortic aneurysm from arterial occlusive disease in human beings: CCR5 Delta 32 deletion. Ghilardi, G., Biondi, M.L., Battaglioli, L., Zambon, A., Guagnellini, E., Scorza, R. J. Vasc. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Circulating levels of interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with carotid stenosis. Lee, S.H., Jeong, M.H., Bae, H.R., Jeong, S.J., Jang, J.Y., Lim, Y.J., Kim, S.H., Kim, J.W., Cha, J.K. J. Korean Med. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene promoter polymorphisms are associated with carotid artery stenosis. Ghilardi, G., Biondi, M.L., DeMonti, M., Turri, O., Guagnellini, E., Scorza, R. Stroke (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Relationship between oxidative stress parameters and atherosclerotic signs in the carotid artery of stable renal transplant patients. Ruiz, M.C., Medina, A., Moreno, J.M., Gómez, I., Ruiz, N., Bueno, P., Asensio, C., Osuna, A. Transplant. Proc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. The value of acetazolamide single photon emission computed tomography scans in the preoperative evaluation of asymptomatic critical carotid stenosis. Cikrit, D.F., Dalsing, M.C., Lalka, S.G., Burt, R.W., Sawchuk, A.P., Solooki, B.A. J. Vasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Assessment of ocular perfusion after carotid endarterectomy with color-flow duplex scanning. Cohn, E.J., Sandager, G.P., Benjamin, M.E., Lilly, M.P., Hanna, D.J., Flinn, W.R. J. Vasc. Surg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis: how should it be managed? Hankey, G.J. Med. J. Aust. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. The first report of successful carotid stent implant using argatroban anticoagulation in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome: a case report. Lewis, B.E., Rangel, Y., Fareed, J. Angiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Quantitative spectral analysis of carotid Doppler signal: evaluation as a method for measurement of drug effects. Spence, J.D. Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale. (1989) [Pubmed]
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