The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

deoxythymidine     1-[4-hydroxy-5- (hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2- yl]...

Synonyms: DThyd, Deoxythymidin, SureCN19895, ACMC-209kqt, T3763_SIGMA, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of thymidine

  • We report a system for investigating promoters of eucaryotic cell and virus genes based on analyses of the regulation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinases whose structural gene sequences have been fused to the promoter of the gene under study [1].
  • To determine the clinical importance of this property, we measured the uptake of tritiated thymidine by leukemic cells in serum-free and cytokine-free cultures as a means of determining the rate of spontaneous proliferation in 114 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia [2].
  • Mutant mitochondrial thymidine kinase in mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy [3].
  • A study was made of conditions affecting synchronous growth following treatment of murine mastocytoma cells with excess thymidine at different phases of the cell cycle [4].
  • Eight Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines divided at least twice in BrdU-containing medium and made DNA in which over 90% of the thymidine residues were substituted with analog in both strands [5].

Psychiatry related information on thymidine


High impact information on thymidine


Chemical compound and disease context of thymidine


Biological context of thymidine

  • Neomycin, which binds PIP2 and PIP, inhibits both thrombin-stimulated initiation of cell proliferation and 32P pI incorporation into at concentrations above 2 mM without affecting thrombin binding, thymidine uptake, or cellular protein synthesis [20].
  • A similar 2 hr exposure to 10(-6) M colcemid also stimulated thymidine incorporation and led to a 50% increase in cell number [21].
  • Thymidine-catabolizing enzymes are active in the cells during G1, G2 and mitosis, but activity falls to very low levels just prior to the onset of S and remains low throughout the S period [22].
  • Pulse treatment of such cultures with thymidine at times corresponding to the S, G2, and M periods had no effect on further growth [4].
  • The ERE is located in the 5' flanking region and is able to confer estrogen inducibility to the thymidine kinase gene promoter [23].

Anatomical context of thymidine


Associations of thymidine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of thymidine

  • Using an IL-2 dependent murine CTLL line, 6 of 14 RA SF caused increased thymidine uptake (greater than three times control) [32].
  • IL-10 was found to inhibit 54-96% of the spontaneous tritiated thymidine incorporation observed in 3 of 12 B-CLL samples [33].
  • Thymidine incorporation and apoptosis analyses further demonstrate that the NSAIDs are effective in the cyclooxygenase-null cells [34].
  • By measuring thymidine uptake, we found that TNF-alpha blocked a 2.3-fold increase in DNA synthesis induced by VEGF in human endothelial cells [35].
  • In addition, an antisense oligonucleotide to bFGF significantly reversed the ET-stimulated thymidine incorporation and enhanced the ANP inhibition of DNA synthesis [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of thymidine


  1. Regulation of alpha genes of herpes simplex virus: expression of chimeric genes produced by fusion of thymidine kinase with alpha gene promoters. Post, L.E., Mackem, S., Roizman, B. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Autonomous proliferation of leukemic cells in vitro as a determinant of prognosis in adult acute myeloid leukemia. Löwenberg, B., van Putten, W.L., Touw, I.P., Delwel, R., Santini, V. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutant mitochondrial thymidine kinase in mitochondrial DNA depletion myopathy. Saada, A., Shaag, A., Mandel, H., Nevo, Y., Eriksson, S., Elpeleg, O. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. A model of cell cycle control: effects of thymidine on synchronous cell cultures. Thomas, D.B., Lingwood, C.A. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Differences in the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine by human lymphoblastoid cell lines. Henderson, E.E., Strauss, B. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. T.T pair intercalation and duplex interconversion within i-motif tetramers. Leroy, J.L. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Involvement of microsomal cytochrome P450 and cytosolic thymidine phosphorylase in 5-fluorouracil formation from tegafur in human liver. Komatsu, T., Yamazaki, H., Shimada, N., Nagayama, S., Kawaguchi, Y., Nakajima, M., Yokoi, T. Clin. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of electroshock on thymidine incorporation into rat brain DNA. Giuditta, A., Abrescia, P., Rutigliano, B. J. Neurochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Androgens control androgen-binding sites in rat epididymis. Tezón, J.G., Blaquier, J.A. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. A multifactor analysis of growth in the rat epididymal fat pad. Cleary, M.P., Greenwood, M.R., Brasel, J.A. J. Nutr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A. Mudryj, M., Devoto, S.H., Hiebert, S.W., Hunter, T., Pines, J., Nevins, J.R. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. A novel mediator between activator proteins and the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus. Kelleher, R.J., Flanagan, P.M., Kornberg, R.D. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Laron dwarfism and mutations of the growth hormone-receptor gene. Amselem, S., Duquesnoy, P., Attree, O., Novelli, G., Bousnina, S., Postel-Vinay, M.C., Goossens, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Domains of laminin with growth-factor activity. Panayotou, G., End, P., Aumailley, M., Timpl, R., Engel, J. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. The reversal of methotrexate toxicity by thymidine with maintenance of antitumour effects. Tattersall, M.H., Brown, B., Frei, E. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Hair cell regeneration after acoustic trauma in adult Coturnix quail. Ryals, B.M., Rubel, E.W. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. In vivo enhancement of 5-fluorouracil cytotoxicity to AKR leukemia cells by thymidine in mice. Santelli, G., Valeriote, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Trans fatty acids in tumor development and the host survival. Awad, A.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of sodium sulfate on fecal pH and proliferation of colonic mucosa in patients at high risk for colon cancer. Kashtan, H., Gregoire, R.C., Bruce, W.R., Hay, K., Stern, H.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Phosphoinositides in mitogenesis: neomycin inhibits thrombin-stimulated phosphoinositide turnover and initiation of cell proliferation. Carney, D.H., Scott, D.L., Gordon, E.A., LaBelle, E.F. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Evidence that microtubule depolymerization early in the cell cycle is sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Crossin, K.L., Carney, D.H. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Catabolism of thymidine during the lymphocyte cell cycle. Usher, D.C., Reiter, H. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. An estrogen-responsive element derived from the 5' flanking region of the Xenopus vitellogenin A2 gene functions in transfected human cells. Klein-Hitpass, L., Schorpp, M., Wagner, U., Ryffel, G.U. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Stable reduction of thymidine kinase activity in cells expressing high levels of anti-sense RNA. Kim, S.K., Wold, B.J. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. In vitro correction of G.T mispairs to G.C pairs in nuclear extracts from human cells. Wiebauer, K., Jiricny, J. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Foetal thymidine kinase in tumours and colonic flat mucosa of man. Salser, J.S., Balis, M.E. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Mutagenesis of Chinese hamster cells is facilitated by thymidine and deoxycytidine. Saffhill, R., Abbott, P.J. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. A point mutation is responsible for the acquisition of transforming properties by the T24 human bladder carcinoma oncogene. Reddy, E.P., Reynolds, R.K., Santos, E., Barbacid, M. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. The vsr gene product of E. coli K-12 is a strand- and sequence-specific DNA mismatch endonuclease. Hennecke, F., Kolmar, H., Bründl, K., Fritz, H.J. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of a retinoic acid responsive element in the retinoic acid receptor beta gene. de Thé, H., Vivanco-Ruiz, M.M., Tiollais, P., Stunnenberg, H., Dejean, A. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Limits of neurogenesis in primates. Rakic, P. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Cytokines in chronic inflammatory arthritis. I. Failure to detect T cell lymphokines (interleukin 2 and interleukin 3) and presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) and a novel mast cell growth factor in rheumatoid synovitis. Firestein, G.S., Xu, W.D., Townsend, K., Broide, D., Alvaro-Gracia, J., Glasebrook, A., Zvaifler, N.J. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Interleukin 10 induces apoptotic cell death of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Fluckiger, A.C., Durand, I., Banchereau, J. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Malignant transformation and antineoplastic actions of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on cyclooxygenase-null embryo fibroblasts. Zhang, X., Morham, S.G., Langenbach, R., Young, D.A. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cultured human vascular endothelial cells. Patterson, C., Perrella, M.A., Endege, W.O., Yoshizumi, M., Lee, M.E., Haber, E. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Astrocyte growth is regulated by neuropeptides through Tis 8 and basic fibroblast growth factor. Hu, R.M., Levin, E.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  37. Origin of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons. Schwanzel-Fukuda, M., Pfaff, D.W. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. DNA synthesis and mitosis in adult amphibian cardiac muscle cells in vitro. Nag, A.C., Healy, C.J., Cheng, M. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  39. Radiation from tritiated thymidine perturbs the cell cycle progression of stimulated lymphocytes. Pollack, A., Bagwell, C.B., Irvin, G.L. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  40. Long-distance neuronal migration in the adult mammalian brain. Lois, C., Alvarez-Buylla, A. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities