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Gene Review

virD4  -  type IV secretion system protein VirD4

Agrobacterium tumefaciens

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Disease relevance of virD4

  • The symbiosis island of Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A contains genes with strong similarity to the structural vir genes (virB1-11; virD4) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens that encode the type IV secretion system (T4SS) required for T-DNA transfer to plants [1].

High impact information on virD4

  • Non-polar virD4 mutants could not be complemented by a distant homologue, TraG protein of plasmid RP4 [2].
  • A virGN54D mutant gene of M. loti caused constitutive expression of lacZ reporter gene fusions to virB1, virD4, msi059, and msi061 [3].
  • Several new ORFs were identified, including ORFs immediately downstream of virD4 and virE2, which probably represent new genes involved in virulence [4].
  • METHODS: Cells of L5F11, a derivative of the Kato-3 gastric epithelial cell line that carries an engineered IL-8 promoter-luciferase reporter gene fusion, were cocultured with H pylori strain 26695 or with an isogenic mutant in which most of the cag PAI ORF 10 gene, an Agrobacterium virD4 homologue, was deleted [5].


  1. Symbiotic phenotypes and translocated effector proteins of the Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A VirB/D4 type IV secretion system. Hubber, A., Vergunst, A.C., Sullivan, J.T., Hooykaas, P.J., Ronson, C.W. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The virD4 gene is required for virulence while virD3 and orf5 are not required for virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Lin, T.S., Kado, C.I. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Symbiosis-induced cascade regulation of the Mesorhizobium loti R7A VirB/D4 type IV secretion system. Hubber, A.M., Sullivan, J.T., Ronson, C.W. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Sequence analysis of the vir-region from Agrobacterium tumefaciens octopine Ti plasmid pTi15955. Schrammeijer, B., Beijersbergen, A., Idler, K.B., Melchers, L.S., Thompson, D.V., Hooykaas, P.J. J. Exp. Bot. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Modulation of Helicobacter pylori induced interleukin-8 synthesis in gastric epithelial cells mediated by cag PAI encoded VirD4 homologue. Crabtree, J.E., Kersulyte, D., Li, S.D., Lindley, I.J., Berg, D.E. J. Clin. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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