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Gene Review

virC2  -  virulence protein

Agrobacterium fabrum str. C58

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Disease relevance of virC2

  • Host recognition and macromolecular transfer of virulence-mediating effectors represent critical steps in the successful transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens [1].
  • Probing the surface of bvrR and bvrS transposon mutants with monoclonal antibodies showed all described major outer membrane proteins (Omps) but Omp25, a protein known to be involved in Brucella virulence [2].
  • We describe a conserved family of bacterial gene products that includes the VirB1 virulence factor encoded by tumor-inducing plasmids of Agrobacterium spp., proteins involved in conjugative DNA transfer of broad-host-range bacterial plasmids, and gene products that may be involved in invasion by Shigella spp. and Salmonella enterica [3].
  • The two-component system BvrR/BvrS essential for Brucella abortus virulence regulates the expression of outer membrane proteins with counterparts in members of the Rhizobiaceae [2].
  • Type IV secretion systems mediate the translocation of virulence factors (proteins and/or DNA) from Gram-negative bacteria into eukaryotic cells [4].

High impact information on virC2


Chemical compound and disease context of virC2


Biological context of virC2

  • Based on its role in vir gene induction, homology to transcriptional regulators and membrane localization, we propose that VirA acts as an environmental sensor of plant-derived inducer molecules and transmits this information to the level of vir gene expression [15].
  • These regions code for octopine catabolism, virulence and plant tumor phenotype [16].
  • One hundred and twenty-four vir::Tn3-lac insertions were analyzed for their mutagenic effect on Agrobacterium virulence, and for their expression of beta-galactosidase activity, the lacZ gene product, in vegetative bacteria and in bacteria cocultivated with plant cells [17].
  • To identify genes involved in T-strand production, pTiA6 virulence (vir) and chromosomal virulence (chv) mutant strains were analyzed [18].
  • These studies suggest that the hdv locus is comprised of at least four genes arranged in an operon in the vir region [19].

Anatomical context of virC2

  • Incubation of the membranes with increasing concentrations of the detergent differentially extracted virulence proteins [20].
  • VirB8-like proteins are essential components of type IV secretion systems, bacterial virulence factors that mediate the translocation of effector molecules from many bacterial pathogens into eukaryotic cells [21].
  • Exudates of dicotyledonous plants contain specific phenolic signal molecules, such as acetosyringone, which serve as potent inducers for the expression of the virulence (vir) regulon of the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens [13].
  • Thus, at least for the wheat cell line used in this study, monocotyledonous resistance to Agrobacterium transformation must result from a block to a step of the T-DNA transfer process subsequent to vir induction [13].
  • A single-stranded DNA substrate is transported across the two cell walls along with the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 [22].

Associations of virC2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of virC2


Regulatory relationships of virC2

  • However, an enriched subpopulation of motile tatC mutants exhibited enhanced virulence compared to the nonmotile variants [28].

Other interactions of virC2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of virC2


  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Plant Cell Interactions and Activities Required for Interkingdom Macromolecular Transfer. McCullen, C.A., Binns, A.N. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The two-component system BvrR/BvrS essential for Brucella abortus virulence regulates the expression of outer membrane proteins with counterparts in members of the Rhizobiaceae. Guzman-Verri, C., Manterola, L., Sola-Landa, A., Parra, A., Cloeckaert, A., Garin, J., Gorvel, J.P., Moriyon, I., Moreno, E., Lopez-Goni, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. A family of lysozyme-like virulence factors in bacterial pathogens of plants and animals. Mushegian, A.R., Fullner, K.J., Koonin, E.V., Nester, E.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of the VirB4-VirB8-VirB5-VirB2 pilus assembly sequence of type IV secretion systems. Yuan, Q., Carle, A., Gao, C., Sivanesan, D., Aly, K.A., Höppner, C., Krall, L., Domke, N., Baron, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Transgenic N. glauca plants expressing bacterial virulence gene virF are converted into hosts for nopaline strains of A. tumefaciens. Regensburg-Tuïnk, A.J., Hooykaas, P.J. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Genome sequence of the plant pathogen and biotechnology agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Goodner, B., Hinkle, G., Gattung, S., Miller, N., Blanchard, M., Qurollo, B., Goldman, B.S., Cao, Y., Askenazi, M., Halling, C., Mullin, L., Houmiel, K., Gordon, J., Vaudin, M., Iartchouk, O., Epp, A., Liu, F., Wollam, C., Allinger, M., Doughty, D., Scott, C., Lappas, C., Markelz, B., Flanagan, C., Crowell, C., Gurson, J., Lomo, C., Sear, C., Strub, G., Cielo, C., Slater, S. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Plant phenolic compounds induce expression of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens loci needed for virulence. Bolton, G.W., Nester, E.W., Gordon, M.P. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence D2 protein is responsible for precise integration of T-DNA into the plant genome. Tinland, B., Schoumacher, F., Gloeckler, V., Bravo-Angel, A.M., Hohn, B. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Membrane topology and functional analysis of the sensory protein VirA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Melchers, L.S., Regensburg-Tuïnk, T.J., Bourret, R.B., Sedee, N.J., Schilperoort, R.A., Hooykaas, P.J. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. VirD proteins of Agrobacterium tumefaciens are required for the formation of a covalent DNA--protein complex at the 5' terminus of T-strand molecules. Herrera-Estrella, A., Chen, Z.M., Van Montagu, M., Wang, K. EMBO J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Mobilization of T-DNA from Agrobacterium to plant cells involves a protein that binds single-stranded DNA. Gietl, C., Koukolíková-Nicola, Z., Hohn, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanism of activation of Agrobacterium virulence genes: identification of phenol-binding proteins. Lee, K., Dudley, M.W., Hess, K.M., Lynn, D.G., Joerger, R.D., Binns, A.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. A nontransformable Triticum monococcum monocotyledonous culture produces the potent Agrobacterium vir-inducing compound ethyl ferulate. Messens, E., Dekeyser, R., Stachel, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane. Wessel, M., Kl??sener, S., G??deke, J., Fritz, C., Hacker, S., Narberhaus, F. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of the virA locus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a transcriptional regulator and host range determinant. Leroux, B., Yanofsky, M.F., Winans, S.C., Ward, J.E., Ziegler, S.F., Nester, E.W. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. A Tn3 lacZ transposon for the random generation of beta-galactosidase gene fusions: application to the analysis of gene expression in Agrobacterium. Stachel, S.E., An, G., Flores, C., Nester, E.W. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. The genetic and transcriptional organization of the vir region of the A6 Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Stachel, S.E., Nester, E.W. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Activation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir gene expression generates multiple single-stranded T-strand molecules from the pTiA6 T-region: requirement for 5' virD gene products. Stachel, S.E., Timmerman, B., Zambryski, P. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of pTiC58 plasmid-encoded proteins for virulence in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hagiya, M., Close, T.J., Tait, R.C., Kado, C.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Detergent extraction identifies different VirB protein subassemblies of the type IV secretion machinery in the membranes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Krall, L., Wiedemann, U., Unsin, G., Weiss, S., Domke, N., Baron, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Dimerization and interactions of Brucella suis VirB8 with VirB4 and VirB10 are required for its biological activity. Paschos, A., Patey, G., Sivanesan, D., Gao, C., Bayliss, R., Waksman, G., O'callaghan, D., Baron, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Three-dimensional reconstruction of Agrobacterium VirE2 protein with single-stranded DNA. Abu-Arish, A., Frenkiel-Krispin, D., Fricke, T., Tzfira, T., Citovsky, V., Wolf, S.G., Elbaum, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Plant-inducible virulence promoter of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid. Okker, R.J., Spaink, H., Hille, J., van Brussel, T.A., Lugtenberg, B., Schilperoort, R.A. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene inducer from the pinaceous gymnosperm Pseudotsuga menziesii. Morris, J.W., Morris, R.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  25. Control of expression of Agrobacterium vir genes by synergistic actions of phenolic signal molecules and monosaccharides. Shimoda, N., Toyoda-Yamamoto, A., Nagamine, J., Usami, S., Katayama, M., Sakagami, Y., Machida, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. GABA controls the level of quorum-sensing signal in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Chevrot, R., Rosen, R., Haudecoeur, E., Cirou, A., Shelp, B.J., Ron, E., Faure, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of conjugal transfer functions of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiC58. von Bodman, S.B., McCutchan, J.E., Farrand, S.K. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Agrobacterium tumefaciens twin-arginine-dependent translocation is important for virulence, flagellation, and chemotaxis but not type IV secretion. Ding, Z., Christie, P.J. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. "Agrolistic" transformation of plant cells: integration of T-strands generated in planta. Hansen, G., Chilton, M.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic analysis of nonpathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants arising in crown gall tumors. Bélanger, C., Canfield, M.L., Moore, L.W., Dion, P. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. The virD4 gene is required for virulence while virD3 and orf5 are not required for virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Lin, T.S., Kado, C.I. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. VirD2 gene product from the nopaline plasmid pTiC58 has at least two activities required for virulence. Steck, T.R., Lin, T.S., Kado, C.I. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Reexamining the role of the accessory plasmid pAtC58 in the virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58. Nair, G.R., Liu, Z., Binns, A.N. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Positive charge is an important feature of the C-terminal transport signal of the VirB/D4-translocated proteins of Agrobacterium. Vergunst, A.C., van Lier, M.C., den Dulk-Ras, A., Stüve, T.A., Ouwehand, A., Hooykaas, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Molecular cloning and characterization of cgt, the Brucella abortus cyclic beta-1,2-glucan transporter gene, and its role in virulence. Roset, M.S., Ciocchini, A.E., Ugalde, R.A., Iñón de Iannino, N. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of an Agrobacterium Ti plasmid gene involved in cytokinin biosynthesis is regulated by virulence loci and induced by plant phenolic compounds. John, M.C., Amasino, R.M. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Interactions of VirB9, -10, and -11 with the membrane fraction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens: solubility studies provide evidence for tight associations. Finberg, K.E., Muth, T.R., Young, S.P., Maken, J.B., Heitritter, S.M., Binns, A.N., Banta, L.M. J. Bacteriol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. A semiquantitative bioassay for relative virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains on Bryophyllum daigremontiana. Minnemeyer, S.L., Lightfoot, R., Matthysse, A.G. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
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