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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genomic Islands

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Disease relevance of Genomic Islands


High impact information on Genomic Islands

  • The combination of allelic forms of genomic islands is the genetic basis that determines the pathogenicity of medically important phenotypes of S aureus, including those of community-acquired MRSA strains [6].
  • Although a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity [7].
  • Although gene decay is obvious in S. thermophilus genome evolution, numerous small genomic islands, which were probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer, comprise important industrial phenotypic traits such as polysaccharide biosynthesis, bacteriocin production, restriction-modification systems or oxygen tolerance [8].
  • To understand the molecular basis of this divergence and conservation, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the rat pancreatic polypeptide gene from an islet genomic library and compared it with that of the human gene [9].
  • Four related genomic islands were identified in seven tetracycline-resistant C. suis strains [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genomic Islands


Biological context of Genomic Islands


Anatomical context of Genomic Islands


Associations of Genomic Islands with chemical compounds

  • Evidence for a symbiosis island involved in horizontal acquisition of pederin biosynthetic capabilities by the bacterial symbiont of Paederus fuscipes beetles [13].
  • The unique reconstruction of formation of a metabolic pathway through the activity of IS elements and a genomic island in the chlorobenzene-degrading strain JS705 demonstrated how pathway evolution can occur under natural conditions in a few 'steps' [17].
  • All were auxotrophic for thiamin and biotin and three were auxotrophic for nicotinate, whereas derivatives of the strains containing the symbiosis island were prototrophic for all three vitamins [18].
  • Here we describe an additional, but LEE-negative genomic island in RW1374 in the vicinity of another phenylalanine tRNA gene, pheU, the sequence of which is identical to pheV [19].
  • It appears that bpaAB are located within a putative genomic island that is inserted in close proximity to a methionine tRNA(CAT)-encoding gene [20].

Gene context of Genomic Islands

  • The 47-kb long genomic island encodes 37 putative proteins, including the previously described saf fimbrial operon and the sinR transcriptional regulator [21].
  • The results demonstrate that the determinants of the members of the S-family of fimbrial adhesins may be located on a common pathogenicity island which, in E. coli strain 536, replaces a 40-kb DNA region which represents an E. coli K-12-specific genomic island [22].
  • The 43-kb fragment, here referred to as Salmonella genomic island I (SgiI), was found in the genome of S. enterica Typhymurium between the thdf and a prophage CP-4-like integrase (int2) gene and is flanked by an imperfect 18-bp direct repeat [23].
  • BCGI-1 has many conserved features of genomic islands, e.g., a Val-tRNA gene is utilized as the integration site, and a site-specific recombinase gene is located at the 3' end [24].
  • We devised software tools to systematically investigate the contents and contexts of bacterial tRNA and tmRNA genes, which are known insertion hotspots for genomic islands (GIs) [25].


  1. Characterization of two alternative promoters for integrase expression in the clc genomic island of Pseudomonas sp. strain B13. Sentchilo, V., Zehnder, A.J., van der Meer, J.R. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Low temperature-induced insecticidal activity of Yersinia enterocolitica. Bresolin, G., Morgan, J.A., Ilgen, D., Scherer, S., Fuchs, T.M. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Symbiotic phenotypes and translocated effector proteins of the Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A VirB/D4 type IV secretion system. Hubber, A., Vergunst, A.C., Sullivan, J.T., Hooykaas, P.J., Ronson, C.W. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. AcrAB-TolC directs efflux-mediated multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104. Baucheron, S., Tyler, S., Boyd, D., Mulvey, M.R., Chaslus-Dancla, E., Cloeckaert, A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification and characterization of the locus for diffuse adherence, which encodes a novel afimbrial adhesin found in atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Scaletsky, I.C., Michalski, J., Torres, A.G., Dulguer, M.V., Kaper, J.B. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Genome and virulence determinants of high virulence community-acquired MRSA. Baba, T., Takeuchi, F., Kuroda, M., Yuzawa, H., Aoki, K., Oguchi, A., Nagai, Y., Iwama, N., Asano, K., Naimi, T., Kuroda, H., Cui, L., Yamamoto, K., Hiramatsu, K. Lancet (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparison of the complete genome sequences of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and pv. tomato DC3000. Feil, H., Feil, W.S., Chain, P., Larimer, F., DiBartolo, G., Copeland, A., Lykidis, A., Trong, S., Nolan, M., Goltsman, E., Thiel, J., Malfatti, S., Loper, J.E., Lapidus, A., Detter, J.C., Land, M., Richardson, P.M., Kyrpides, N.C., Ivanova, N., Lindow, S.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. New insights in the molecular biology and physiology of Streptococcus thermophilus revealed by comparative genomics. Hols, P., Hancy, F., Fontaine, L., Grossiord, B., Prozzi, D., Leblond-Bourget, N., Decaris, B., Bolotin, A., Delorme, C., Dusko Ehrlich, S., Guédon, E., Monnet, V., Renault, P., Kleerebezem, M. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Mosaic evolution of prepropancreatic polypeptide. II. Structural conservation and divergence in pancreatic polypeptide gene. Yonekura, H., Nata, K., Watanabe, T., Kurashina, Y., Yamamoto, H., Okamoto, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Tetracycline resistance in Chlamydia suis mediated by genomic islands inserted into the chlamydial inv-like gene. Dugan, J., Rockey, D.D., Jones, L., Andersen, A.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. DNA polymorphism in the omp25/omp31 family of Brucella spp.: identification of a 1.7-kb inversion in Brucella cetaceae and of a 15.1-kb genomic island, absent from Brucella ovis, related to the synthesis of smooth lipopolysaccharide. Vizcaíno, N., Caro-Hernández, P., Cloeckaert, A., Fernández-Lago, L. Microbes Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. A genomic island present along the bacterial chromosome of the Parachlamydiaceae UWE25, an obligate amoebal endosymbiont, encodes a potentially functional F-like conjugative DNA transfer system. Greub, G., Collyn, F., Guy, L., Roten, C.A. BMC Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Evidence for a symbiosis island involved in horizontal acquisition of pederin biosynthetic capabilities by the bacterial symbiont of Paederus fuscipes beetles. Piel, J., Höfer, I., Hui, D. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization and localization of drug resistance determinants in multidrug-resistant, integron-carrying Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium strains. Guerra, B., Junker, E., Miko, A., Helmuth, R., Mendoza, M.C. Microb. Drug Resist. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. The gene encoding pyolysin, the pore-forming toxin of Arcanobacterium pyogenes, resides within a genomic islet flanked by essential genes. Rudnick, S.T., Jost, B.H., Songer, J.G., Billington, S.J. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification and characterization of a novel genomic island integrated at selC in locus of enterocyte effacement-negative, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Schmidt, H., Zhang, W.L., Hemmrich, U., Jelacic, S., Brunder, W., Tarr, P.I., Dobrindt, U., Hacker, J., Karch, H. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Evolution of a chlorobenzene degradative pathway among bacteria in a contaminated groundwater mediated by a genomic island in Ralstonia. Müller, T.A., Werlen, C., Spain, J., Van Der Meer, J.R. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. The bio operon on the acquired symbiosis island of Mesorhizobium sp. strain R7A includes a novel gene involved in pimeloyl-CoA synthesis. Sullivan, J.T., Brown, S.D., Yocum, R.R., Ronson, C.W. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Dissemination of pheU- and pheV-located genomic islands among enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) E. coli and their possible role in the horizontal transfer of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Rumer, L., Jores, J., Kirsch, P., Cavignac, Y., Zehmke, K., Wieler, L.H. Int. J. Med. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification of a novel two-partner secretion system from Burkholderia pseudomallei. Brown, N.F., Logue, C.A., Boddey, J.A., Scott, R., Hirst, R.G., Beacham, I.R. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The Salmonella enterica subspecies I specific centisome 7 genomic island encodes novel protein families present in bacteria living in close contact with eukaryotic cells. Folkesson, A., Löfdahl, S., Normark, S. Res. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. S-Fimbria-encoding determinant sfa(I) is located on pathogenicity island III(536) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536. Dobrindt, U., Blum-Oehler, G., Hartsch, T., Gottschalk, G., Ron, E.Z., Fünfstück, R., Hacker, J. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Partial characterization of a genomic island associated with the multidrug resistance region of Salmonella enterica Typhymurium DT104. Boyd, D.A., Peters, G.A., Ng, L., Mulvey, M.R. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of genomic islands in the genome of Bacillus cereus by comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis. Zhang, R., Zhang, C.T. Physiol. Genomics (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. A novel strategy for the identification of genomic islands by comparative analysis of the contents and contexts of tRNA sites in closely related bacteria. Ou, H.Y., Chen, L.L., Lonnen, J., Chaudhuri, R.R., Thani, A.B., Smith, R., Garton, N.J., Hinton, J., Pallen, M., Barer, M.R., Rajakumar, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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