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Gene Review

bel  - 

Human spumaretrovirus

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Disease relevance of bel


High impact information on bel

  • Our studies with transgenic mice demonstrate that HFV transgenes encompassing the bel region are transiently transcribed between midgestation and birth at moderate levels in various tissues [5].
  • We have analysed whether there is interference between the HFV long terminal repeat promoter and the internal promoter located in the 3' end of env upstream of the bel genes [6].
  • The helper and vector plasmid constructs used both lack the HFV bel genes, so recombination between these constructs cannot create a wild-type virus [7].
  • An HFV transgene called delta gpe, containing both promoters and all bel genes, is expressed in the central nervous system and induces neurodegeneration in mice [8].
  • The human foamy or spumaretrovirus (HFV) is a complex retrovirus that codes for the three retroviral genes gag, pol, and env and the regulatory and accessory bel genes [9].


  1. Analysis of the role of the bel and bet open reading frames of human foamy virus by using a new quantitative assay. Yu, S.F., Linial, M.L. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The human foamy virus internal promoter directs the expression of the functional Bel 1 transactivator and Bet protein early after infection. Löchelt, M., Flügel, R.M., Aboud, M. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The bet gene of feline foamy virus is required for virus replication. Alke, A., Schwantes, A., Kido, K., Flötenmeyer, M., Flügel, R.M., Löchelt, M. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Construction of an infectious DNA clone of the full-length human spumaretrovirus genome and mutagenesis of the bel 1 gene. Löchelt, M., Zentgraf, H., Flügel, R.M. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Human foamy virus: an underestimated neuropathogen? Aguzzi, A., Bothe, K., Wagner, E.F., Rethwilm, A., Horak, I. Brain Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Increase in the basal transcriptional activity of the human foamy virus internal promoter by the homologous long terminal repeat promoter in cis. Löchelt, M., Aboud, M., Flügel, R.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Helper-free foamy virus vectors. Trobridge, G.D., Russell, D.W. Hum. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Analysis of the determinants of neurotropism and neurotoxicity of HFV in transgenic mice. Tschopp, R.R., Brandner, S., Marino, S., Bothe, K., Horak, I., Rethwilm, A., Aguzzi, A. Virology (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. The human foamy virus internal promoter is required for efficient gene expression and infectivity. Löchelt, M., Yu, S.F., Linial, M.L., Flügel, R.M. Virology (1995) [Pubmed]
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