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MeSH Review

Genes, gag

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Disease relevance of Genes, gag


High impact information on Genes, gag

  • By introducing mutations, we found that the three genes gag, prt and pol are all required for retrotransposition and identified the IAP gene products by electron microscopy in the form of intracellular A-type particles in the transfected cells [6].
  • The gag gene is terminated by an amber stop codon and is contained within a different reading frame than is the pol gene [7].
  • The 7.2 kb species, which is presumably the genome of AMV, appears to contain the entire retroviral gag gene and at least part of the pol gene, but lacks much (or all) of the env gene [8].
  • In some viruses this protease is encoded at the 3' end of the gag gene, or between the gag and pol genes in a different reading frame to either [9].
  • Since this region overlaps the gag gene, it is likely that ribosomal frameshifting occurs from gag to pol [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, gag


Biological context of Genes, gag


Anatomical context of Genes, gag

  • The envelope (env) and structural (gag) gene products of human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type III were identified by immunoaffinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and two-dimensional oligopeptide mapping methods [21].
  • By using a series of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing full-length and truncated F-MuLV gag genes, the antigenic epitope recognized by the FBL-3 gag-specific CTL clones, as well as by bulk-cultured CTL from spleens of mice immune to FBL-3, was localized to the leader sequence of gPr80gag protein [22].
  • Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to p24 and p17 were developed and used to immunologically characterize these two HIV gag gene products [23].
  • In this report, RNA from human colon adenocarcinoma and surrounding mucosa was hybridized to mouse IAP pol and gag genes to examine the expression of human endogenous A-type retroviruses [24].
  • Our studies on virus gene expression indicate that both viral gag gene product p30 and env gene product gp70 are expressed in brain, spinal cord and spleen tissues of paralyzed mice [25].

Associations of Genes, gag with chemical compounds

  • This polyprotein lacked detectable antigenic cross-reactivity with other virion-coded gag gene proteins such as p30, p10, the viral reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase), or the major viral envelope glycoprotein, gp70 [26].
  • A comparison of the methionine-containing tryptic peptides of the AEV 75-kilodalton protein, the CMII 90-kilodalton protein, and the MC29 110-kilodalton protein with the gag gene product Pr76 of their naturally occurring helper leukemia viruses enabled us to distinguish those peptides related to the gag gene from the non-gag-related peptides [27].
  • Fixed nucleic acid substitutions in the gag gene appear to be caused by random fixation of selectively neutral mutants, whereas nonrandom fixation of selectively advantageous mutants, as has been observed for MHC molecules and serine protease inhibitors, appears to be operational for some hypervariable env gene regions [28].
  • The membrane glycoprotein encoded by the gag gene of Friend MuLV contains only one asparagine-linked oligosaccharide [29].
  • The DeltaLR-9 deletion is located in the region of the gag gene corresponding to the matrix (MA) protein as well as in the negative regulator of splicing (NRS) element [30].

Gene context of Genes, gag

  • The hybrid onc gene of MC29 must have been generated from the c-myc gene by deletion of the 5' cellular coding sequence, followed by substitution with the 5' region of the viral gag gene [31].
  • Codon optimization of gag-pol also reduces sequence homology with vectors containing gag gene sequences, which results in reduced transfer of biologically active gag-pol sequences to transduced cells [32].
  • N-terminal sequencing of these allowed unambiguous assignment of the small polypeptides as products of the gag gene, including CA and NC, and the large polypeptide as the TM product of env [33].
  • Insertion of the gag gene downstream of the tat open reading frame in the tat cDNA resulted in the inhibition of Tat production [34].
  • The protease of SFV-3 is encoded by the pol gene in contrast to HFV which encodes the protease in the gag gene [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, gag

  • A collection of mutants of Moloney murine leukemia virus with deletions in the gag gene was generated by restriction enzyme site-directed mutagenesis of a cloned proviral DNA [36].
  • Southern hybridization and sequence analysis showed that the cloned DNA fragment consisted of the 1.3-kb ski sequence embedded in the p19gag sequence and followed by the remaining 5' half of the gag gene and small portions of both the pol and env genes [37].
  • To immunologically identify the major precursors and processed products of the BIV gag gene, monospecific rabbit sera to recombinant BIV MA protein and Pr53gag and peptides predicted to correspond to the CA and NC proteins and the MA-CA cleavage site were developed and used in immunoprecipitations and immunoblots of BIV antigens [38].
  • XC plaque assays of recombinant virus progeny on Fv-ln and Fv-lb cells indicated that the Fv-l host range was determined by sequences located between the BamHI site in the p30 region of the gag gene (1.6 kilobase pairs from the left end of the map) and the HindIII site located in the pol gene (2.9 kilobase pairs from the left end of the map) [39].
  • Previous experiments involving DNA transfection and marker rescue analysis of molecularly cloned Emv-3 DNA suggested that Emv-3 carries a small defect(s) in the gag gene, not detectable by restriction enzyme mapping, that inhibits virus expression in vivo and in vitro [40].


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  2. Characterization of ribosomal frameshifting in HIV-1 gag-pol expression. Jacks, T., Power, M.D., Masiarz, F.R., Luciw, P.A., Barr, P.J., Varmus, H.E. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Friend virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize both gag and env gene-encoded specificities. Holt, C.A., Osorio, K., Lilly, F. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Spontaneous cessation of Friend murine leukemia virus production by leukemia cell line Y57: overgrowth by nonproducer cells. Collins, J.K., Chesebro, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Human foamy virus genome possesses an internal, Bel-1-dependent and functional promoter. Löchelt, M., Muranyi, W., Flügel, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of autonomous IAP LTR retrotransposons mobile in mammalian cells. Dewannieux, M., Dupressoir, A., Harper, F., Pierron, G., Heidmann, T. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of Rous sarcoma virus. Schwartz, D.E., Tizard, R., Gilbert, W. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. The genome and the intracellular RNAs of avian myeloblastosis virus. Gonda, T.J., Sheiness, D.K., Fanshier, L., Bishop, J.M., Moscovici, C., Moscovici, M.G. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. A structural model for the retroviral proteases. Pearl, L.H., Taylor, W.R. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. HTLV-III gag protein is processed in yeast cells by the virus pol-protease. Kramer, R.A., Schaber, M.D., Skalka, A.M., Ganguly, K., Wong-Staal, F., Reddy, E.P. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Avian sarcoma virus gag and env gene structural protein precursors contain a common amino-terminal sequence. Ficht, T.A., Chang, L.J., Stoltzfus, C.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of T7 and T3 RNA polymerase directed transcription elongation in vitro. Rando, R.F., DePaolis, L., Durland, R.H., Jayaraman, K., Kessler, D.J., Hogan, M.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular modelling study of HIV p17gag (MA) protein shell utilising data from electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography. Forster, M.J., Mulloy, B., Nermut, M.V. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of the gag-pol fusion protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus without gag protein does not induce virion formation or proteolytic processing. Felsenstein, K.M., Goff, S.P. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Structure of glycosylated and unglycosylated gag and gag-pol precursor proteins of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Saris, C.J., van Eenbergen, J., Liskamp, R.M., Bloemers, H.P. J. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Genome of avian myelocytomatosis virus MC29: analysis by heteroduplex mapping. Hu, S.S., Lai, M.M., Vogt, P.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Construction of a clonable, infectious, and tumorigenic mouse mammary tumor virus provirus and a derivative genetic vector. Shackleford, G.M., Varmus, H.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Quantitative assessment of HIV-1 DNA load by coamplification of HIV-1 gag and HLA-DQ-alpha genes. Lee, T.H., Sunzeri, F.J., Tobler, L.H., Williams, B.G., Busch, M.P. AIDS (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. The bovine leukemia virus encapsidation signal is discontinuous and extends into the 5' end of the gag gene. Mansky, L.M., Krueger, A.E., Temin, H.M. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Quantitative analysis of serum neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from subtypes A, B, C, D, E, F, and I: lack of direct correlation between neutralization serotypes and genetic subtypes and evidence for prevalent serum-dependent infectivity enhancement. Kostrikis, L.G., Cao, Y., Ngai, H., Moore, J.P., Ho, D.D. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of envelope and core structural gene products of HTLV-III with sera from AIDS patients. Robey, W.G., Safai, B., Oroszlan, S., Arthur, L.O., Gonda, M.A., Gallo, R.C., Fischinger, P.J. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of a gag-encoded cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope from FBL-3 leukemia shared by Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher murine leukemia virus-induced tumors. Chen, W., Qin, H., Chesebro, B., Cheever, M.A. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Biochemical and immunological analysis of human immunodeficiency virus gag gene products p17 and p24. Veronese, F.D., Copeland, T.D., Oroszlan, S., Gallo, R.C., Sarngadharan, M.G. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. mRNA from human colon tumor and mucosa related to the pol gene of an endogenous A-type retrovirus. Moshier, J.A., Luk, G.D., Huang, R.C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Wild mouse retrovirus-induced neurogenic paralysis in laboratory mice. I. Virus replication and expression in central nervous system. Pal, B.K., Mohan, S., Nimo, R., Gardner, M.B. Arch. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Cells nonproductively transformed by Abelson murine leukemia virus express a high molecular weight polyprotein containing structural and nonstructural components. Reynolds, F.H., Sacks, T.L., Deobagkar, D.N., Stephenson, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparative tryptic peptide mapping studies suggest a role in cell transformation for the gag-related protein of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strains CMII and MC29. Kitchener, G., Hayman, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Genomic diversity and antigenic variation of HIV-1: links between pathogenesis, epidemiology and vaccine development. Goudsmit, J., Back, N.K., Nara, P.L. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Glycosylation and intracellular transport of membrane glycoproteins encoded by murine leukemia viruses. Inhibition by amino acid analogues and by tunicamycin. Polonoff, E., Machida, C.A., Kabat, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Silent point mutation in an avian retrovirus RNA processing element promotes c-myb-associated short-latency lymphomas. Polony, T.S., Bowers, S.J., Neiman, P.E., Beemon, K.L. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the chicken c-myc gene reveals homologous and unique coding regions by comparison with the transforming gene of avian myelocytomatosis virus MC29, delta gag-myc. Watson, D.K., Reddy, E.P., Duesberg, P.H., Papas, T.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Helper plasmids for production of HIV-1-derived vectors. Fuller, M., Anson, D.S. Hum. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Nucleotide sequence and protein analysis of a complex piscine retrovirus, walleye dermal sarcoma virus. Holzschu, D.L., Martineau, D., Fodor, S.K., Vogt, V.M., Bowser, P.R., Casey, J.W. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Distinct RNA sequences in the gag region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 decrease RNA stability and inhibit expression in the absence of Rev protein. Schwartz, S., Felber, B.K., Pavlakis, G.N. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Genomic organization and expression of simian foamy virus type 3 (SFV-3). Renne, R., Friedl, E., Schweizer, M., Fleps, U., Turek, R., Neumann-Haefelin, D. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  36. Mutations in gag proteins P12 and P15 of Moloney murine leukemia virus block early stages of infection. Crawford, S., Goff, S.P. J. Virol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  37. Transforming Sloan-Kettering viruses generated from the cloned v-ski oncogene by in vitro and in vivo recombinations. Stavnezer, E., Barkas, A.E., Brennan, L.A., Brodeur, D., Li, Y. J. Virol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  38. Immunological characterization of the gag gene products of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Battles, J.K., Hu, M.Y., Rasmussen, L., Tobin, G.J., Gonda, M.A. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Reversal of Fv-1 host range by in vitro restriction endonuclease fragment exchange between molecular clones of N-tropic and B-tropic murine leukemia virus genomes. Boone, L.R., Myer, F.E., Yang, D.M., Ou, C.Y., Koh, C.K., Roberson, L.E., Tennant, R.W., Yang, W.K. J. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  40. Poorly expressed endogenous ecotropic provirus of DBA/2 mice encodes a mutant Pr65gag protein that is not myristylated. Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Nexø, B., Schultz, A.M., Rein, A., Mikkelsen, T., Jørgensen, P. J. Virol. (1988) [Pubmed]
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