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Gene Review

bel3  -  Bel3

Human spumaretrovirus

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Disease relevance of bel3


High impact information on bel3

  • In contrast, deletions in bel 2 and bel 3 had only minor effects on the ability to transactivate [4].
  • At least four novel gene products, termed Bet, Bes, Beo, and Bel3, are predicted to exist [5].
  • On transfection and expression in transfected COS cells, recombinant Bel 3 was immunoprecipitated and migrated in three polypeptide bands of 18.7, 14.8, and 9.3 kDa under denaturing conditions [2].
  • The comparative V beta-specific transcriptional analysis revealed that the in vitro expression of the V beta 18 chain was specifically and strongly expanded in Bel 3-stimulated human T cells, a property characteristic for a superantigen [3].
  • The expression of different V beta chains of the TCR was analyzed by reverse transcription of the V beta RNAs and subsequent amplification of the corresponding V beta cDNA elements by polymerase chain reaction in unstimulated, phytohemaggluttinin (PHA)- and Bel 3-stimulated human T lymphocytes [3].

Biological context of bel3

  • In the corresponding region of the human foamy virus, three ORFs (bel-1, bel-2, and bel-3) have been identified (R. M. Flugel, A. Rethwilm, B. Maurer, and G. Darai, EMBO J. 6:2077-2084, 1987) [6].

Other interactions of bel3

  • Analysis of these mutants reveals that while the bel3 gene is not required for viral replication in vitro, mutations in the bel2 or bet gene decrease cell-free viral transmission approximately 10-fold [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of bel3


  1. The 3'-orf protein of human immunodeficiency virus 2 shows sequence homology with the bel3 gene of the human spumaretrovirus. Maurer, B., Flügel, R.M. FEBS Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and characterization of the Bel 3 protein of human foamy virus. Weissenberger, J., Flügel, R.M. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence for superantigen activity of the Bel 3 protein of the human foamy virus. Weissenberger, J., Altmann, A., Meuer, S., Flügel, R.M. J. Med. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. The transcriptional transactivator of human foamy virus maps to the bel 1 genomic region. Rethwilm, A., Erlwein, O., Baunach, G., Maurer, B., ter Meulen, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Analysis of splicing patterns of human spumaretrovirus by polymerase chain reaction reveals complex RNA structures. Muranyi, W., Flügel, R.M. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of the simian foamy virus transcriptional transactivator gene (taf). Mergia, A., Shaw, K.E., Pratt-Lowe, E., Barry, P.A., Luciw, P.A. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of the role of the bel and bet open reading frames of human foamy virus by using a new quantitative assay. Yu, S.F., Linial, M.L. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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