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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

bet  -  Bet

Human spumaretrovirus

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Disease relevance of bet


High impact information on bet

  • HFV Bet follows an unconventional route to exit the cell since its secretion is not affected by brefeldin A, a drug which disrupts the trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex [5].
  • While gp160 and Bet proteins were both secreted into the supernatant, only Bet was taken up by recipient cells [6].
  • Here, we show that infection of cell lines stably transduced by delta HFV DNA with the highly lytic HFV leads to chronic infections characterized by an absence of lysis, a balanced ratio of HFV to delta HFV, and a persistent Bet expression accompanied by a shutoff of structural genes [4].
  • At least four novel gene products, termed Bet, Bes, Beo, and Bel3, are predicted to exist [7].
  • The results indicate that FFV Bet is required for efficient virus replication [8].

Biological context of bet


Anatomical context of bet

  • The Bet-reactive antibodies were detected using a commercial streptavidin kit and revealed Bet in the cytoplasm of cells from different lymphoid tissues like lymphnodes, tonsils, thymus and spleen [9].

Other interactions of bet

  • The predominant HSRV protein detected in immunoblots by both Bel 1- and Bel 2-specific antisera had an apparent molecular weight of 56 kDa and corresponds to Bet [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of bet

  • SFV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, but not IgA antibodies, against the Gag and Bet proteins were detected, by Western blotting, in all sample types from infected humans and chimpanzees [11].
  • To demonstrate feline FV (FFV) in tissues of experimentally infected cats three polyclonal monospecific antisera from rabbits against three different viral proteins, the structural Gag and the non-structural Bel 1 and Bet proteins were tested for their applicability in immunohistochemistry with paraffin sections [9].


  1. The antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3 is inhibited by the foamy virus accessory Bet protein. Löchelt, M., Romen, F., Bastone, P., Muckenfuss, H., Kirchner, N., Kim, Y.B., Truyen, U., Rösler, U., Battenberg, M., Saib, A., Flory, E., Cichutek, K., Münk, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Foamy virus Bet proteins function as novel inhibitors of the APOBEC3 family of innate antiretroviral defense factors. Russell, R.A., Wiegand, H.L., Moore, M.D., Schäfer, A., McClure, M.O., Cullen, B.R. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Persistent infection with primate foamy virus type 1 increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell binding via a Bet-independent mechanism. Schiffer, C., Lecellier, C.H., Mannioui, A., Felix, N., Nelson, E., Lehmann-Che, J., Giron, M.L., Gluckman, J.C., Saib, A., Canque, B. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Involvement of a spliced and defective human foamy virus in the establishment of chronic infection. Saïb, A., Koken, M.H., van der Spek, P., Périès, J., de Thé, H. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Intra- and intercellular trafficking of the foamy virus auxiliary bet protein. Lecellier, C.H., Vermeulen, W., Bachelerie, F., Giron, M.L., Saïb, A. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. An evolutionarily conserved splice generates a secreted env-Bet fusion protein during human foamy virus infection. Giron, M.L., de Thé, H., Saïb, A. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Analysis of splicing patterns of human spumaretrovirus by polymerase chain reaction reveals complex RNA structures. Muranyi, W., Flügel, R.M. J. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. The bet gene of feline foamy virus is required for virus replication. Alke, A., Schwantes, A., Kido, K., Flötenmeyer, M., Flügel, R.M., Löchelt, M. Virology (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Demonstration of feline foamy virus in experimentally infected cats by immunohistochemistry. Weikel, J., Löchelt, M., Truyen, U. Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Construction of an infectious DNA clone of the full-length human spumaretrovirus genome and mutagenesis of the bel 1 gene. Löchelt, M., Zentgraf, H., Flügel, R.M. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Mucosal and systemic antibody responses in humans infected with simian foamy virus. Cummins, J.E., Boneva, R.S., Switzer, W.M., Christensen, L.L., Sandstrom, P., Heneine, W., Chapman, L.E., Dezzutti, C.S. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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