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Gene Review

PGRP-SA  -  Peptidoglycan recognition protein SA

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: BcDNA:AT30827, CG11709, Dm PGRP-SA, Dmel\CG11709, Peptidoglycan-recognition protein SA, ...
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Disease relevance of PGRP-SA


High impact information on PGRP-SA

  • The sensing of Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors PGRP-SA and GNBP1 that cooperate to detect the presence of infections in the host [4].
  • Interestingly, seml does not affect Toll activation by fungal infection, indicating the existence of a distinct recognition system for fungi to activate the Toll pathway [5].
  • By analyzing cDNA clones and genomic databases, we grouped them into two classes: PGRP-SA, SB1, SB2, SC1A, SC1B, SC2, and SD, with short transcripts and short 5'-untranslated regions; and PGRP-LA, LB, LC, LD, and LE, with long transcripts and long 5'-untranslated regions [6].
  • As L,D-configured peptide bonds exist only in prokaryotes, this work reveals a rare enzymatic activity in a eukaryotic protein known for sensing bacteria and provides a possible explanation of how PGRP-SA mediates Toll activation specifically in response to lysine-type PG [3].
  • Contrary to the general belief that PGRP-SA has lost enzyme function and serves primarily for PG sensing, we found that it possesses an intrinsic L,D-carboxypeptidase activity for diaminopimelic acid-type tetrapeptide PG fragments but not lysine-type PG fragments, and that Ser158 and His42 may participate in the hydrolytic activity [3].

Biological context of PGRP-SA


Physical interactions of PGRP-SA


Regulatory relationships of PGRP-SA


Other interactions of PGRP-SA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PGRP-SA


  1. Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteria. Bischoff, V., Vignal, C., Boneca, I.G., Michel, T., Hoffmann, J.A., Royet, J. Nat. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors. Gobert, V., Gottar, M., Matskevich, A.A., Rutschmann, S., Royet, J., Belvin, M., Hoffmann, J.A., Ferrandon, D. Science (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. A Drosophila pattern recognition receptor contains a peptidoglycan docking groove and unusual L,D-carboxypeptidase activity. Chang, C.I., Pili-Floury, S., Hervé, M., Parquet, C., Chelliah, Y., Lemaitre, B., Mengin-Lecreulx, D., Deisenhofer, J. PLoS Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Dual Detection of Fungal Infections in Drosophila via Recognition of Glucans and Sensing of Virulence Factors. Gottar, M., Gobert, V., Matskevich, A.A., Reichhart, J.M., Wang, C., Butt, T.M., Belvin, M., Hoffmann, J.A., Ferrandon, D. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein. Michel, T., Reichhart, J.M., Hoffmann, J.A., Royet, J. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Werner, T., Liu, G., Kang, D., Ekengren, S., Steiner, H., Hultmark, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Requirements of peptidoglycan structure that allow detection by the Drosophila Toll pathway. Filipe, S.R., Tomasz, A., Ligoxygakis, P. EMBO Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins: on and off switches for innate immunity. Steiner, H. Immunol. Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Sensing of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila: GNBP1 is needed to process and present peptidoglycan to PGRP-SA. Wang, L., Weber, A.N., Atilano, M.L., Filipe, S.R., Gay, N.J., Ligoxygakis, P. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Crystal structure of the Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-SA at 1.56 A resolution. Reiser, J.B., Teyton, L., Wilson, I.A. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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