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Gene Review

sei  -  enterotoxin I

Staphylococcus aureus RF122

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Disease relevance of sei


High impact information on sei

  • RT-PCR analysis showed that all these genes, including seg and sei, belong to an operon, designated the enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) [4].
  • One strain with an atypical egc locus produced two new enterotoxins, designated SElV and SElU2, generated by (i) recombination between selm and sei, producing selv, and (ii) a limited deletion in the varphient1-varphient2 pseudogenes, producing selu2 [5].
  • By an analysis of their nucleotide sequence identities, a new homogeneous cluster of a sei variant, called the sei variant, was detected in six strains [6].
  • A modified multiplex PCR method for detection of nine Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, and sej) and one form of immunoreactive toxic shock syndrome toxin based on a previously published method (S. R. Monday and G. A. Bohach, J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:3411-3414, 1999) has been developed [7].
  • The se genotype was classified into 14 genotypes. seg and sei coexisted in the same S. aureus strain [2].

Biological context of sei

  • Between the sei and seln genes are located two pseudogenes, psient1 and psient2, or the selu or selu(v) gene [8].
  • The isolates were typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the coagulase (coa) gene, by analysis of polymorphisms of the X region of protein A (spa) gene and by detection of genes encoding enterotoxins (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej and sel) [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of sei

  • In outbreak 1, the 16 food isolates analyzed had sec, seg and sei genes and generated a distinctive DNA fingerprint, being assigned to a single strain [10].


  1. Detection of enterotoxin genes seg, seh, sei, and sej and of a novel aroA genotype in Jordanian clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. El-Huneidi, W., Bdour, S., Mahasneh, A. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Detection of seg, seh, and sei genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates and determination of the enterotoxin productivities of S. aureus isolates Harboring seg, seh, or sei genes. Omoe, K., Ishikawa, M., Shimoda, Y., Hu, D.L., Ueda, S., Shinagawa, K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Pattern of enterotoxin genes seg, seh, sei and sej positive Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis. Zschöck, M., Kloppert, B., Wolter, W., Hamann, H.P., Lämmler, C.h. Vet. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. egc, a highly prevalent operon of enterotoxin gene, forms a putative nursery of superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. Jarraud, S., Peyrat, M.A., Lim, A., Tristan, A., Bes, M., Mougel, C., Etienne, J., Vandenesch, F., Bonneville, M., Lina, G. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxins U2 and V, two new staphylococcal superantigens arising from recombination within the enterotoxin gene cluster. Thomas, D.Y., Jarraud, S., Lemercier, B., Cozon, G., Echasserieau, K., Etienne, J., Gougeon, M.L., Lina, G., Vandenesch, F. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Biotyping of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus by Enterotoxin Gene Cluster (egc) Polymorphism and spa Typing Analyses. Blaiotta, G., Fusco, V., von Eiff, C., Villani, F., Becker, K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Modified multiplex PCR method for detection of pyrogenic exotoxin genes in staphylococcal isolates. Løvseth, A., Loncarevic, S., Berdal, K.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Rapid differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates harbouring egc loci with pseudogenes {psi}ent1 and {psi}ent2 and the selu or seluv gene using PCR-RFLP. Collery, M.M., Smyth, C.J. J. Med. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Cows, Goats and Sheep with Intramammary Infections on the Basis of Gene Polymorphisms and Toxins Genes. Vimercati, C., Cremonesi, P., Castiglioni, B., Pisoni, G., Boettcher, P.J., Stella, A., Vicenzoni, G., Moroni, P. J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Genetic procedures for identification of enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus from three food poisoning outbreaks. Martín, M.C., Fueyo, J.M., González-Hevia, M.A., Mendoza, M.C. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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