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Gene Review

arlS  -  two-component sensor histidine kinase

Staphylococcus aureus RF122

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Disease relevance of arlS


High impact information on arlS

  • Here, we show that mutations in either arlR or arlS increase the production of secreted proteins [alpha-toxin (Hla), beta-haemolysin, lipase, coagulase, serine protease (Ssp)] and especially protein A (Spa) [2].
  • Expression studies with an arlS mutant revealed that the norA promoter is ArlS dependent [3].
  • The arlS mutant formed a biofilm on a polystyrene surface unlike the parent strain and the complemented mutant [1].
  • Since the locus arlR-arlS strikingly modifies extracellular proteolytic activity, this locus might also be involved in the virulence of S. aureus [1].
  • Finally, the arlS mutant showed a dramatic decrease of extracellular proteolytic activity, including serine protease activity, in comparison to the wild-type strain and the complemented mutant, and cells grown in the presence of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (a serine protease inhibitor) showed an increased autolysin activity [1].

Biological context of arlS

  • From transcriptional fusions, we have localized four different putative boxes of 6 bp, which appear to play a role in the binding of the 18-kDa protein and in the up-regulation of norA expression in the presence of the arlS mutation [3].
  • Sequence analysis suggested that arlS forms an operon with upstream gene arlR [1].


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