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Gene Review

FLS1  -  flavonol synthase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of FLS


High impact information on FLS

  • One mutant line contained an En-1 insertion in the flavonol synthase gene (FLS) and showed drastically reduced levels of kaempferol [2].
  • These studies indicate that FLS is an "early" flavonoid gene in Arabidopsis seedlings, whereas LDOX is a "late" gene [3].
  • Furthermore, FLS is the first flavonoid enzyme identified in Arabidopsis that may be encoded by a gene family [3].
  • DNA blot analysis was used to screen the Arabidopsis genome for sequences related to FLS and LDOX and to determine the positions of the two clones on the RI map [3].

Biological context of FLS

  • This and other studies led to the proposal that ANS as well as FLS may select for dihydroflavonoid substrates carrying a "beta-face" C-3 hydroxyl group and initially form the 3-geminal diol by "alpha-face" hydroxylation [4].


  1. In vitro properties of a recombinant flavonol synthase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Prescott, A.G., Stamford, N.P., Wheeler, G., Firmin, J.L. Phytochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Knock-out mutants from an En-1 mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana population generate phenylpropanoid biosynthesis phenotypes. Wisman, E., Hartmann, U., Sagasser, M., Baumann, E., Palme, K., Hahlbrock, K., Saedler, H., Weisshaar, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of flavonol synthase and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase genes in Arabidopsis. Further evidence for differential regulation of "early" and "late" genes. Pelletier, M.K., Murrell, J.R., Shirley, B.W. Plant Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Anthocyanidin synthase from Gerbera hybrida catalyzes the conversion of (+)-catechin to cyanidin and a novel procyanidin. Wellmann, F., Griesser, M., Schwab, W., Martens, S., Eisenreich, W., Matern, U., Lukacin, R. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
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