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Gene Review

ATM3  -  ABC transporter of the mitochondrion 3

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of STA1


High impact information on STA1

  • STA1 expression is upregulated by cold stress, and the sta1-1 mutant is defective in the splicing of the cold-induced COR15A gene [2].
  • We show that the STARIK gene encodes the mitochondrial ABC transporter Sta1 that belongs to a subfamily of Arabidopsis half-ABC transporters [1].
  • We found that AtATM3-overexpressing plants were enhanced in resistance to Cd, whereas atatm3 mutant plants were more sensitive to Cd than their wild-type controls [3].
  • Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis led to the elevated expression of AtATM3, whereas expression of the glutathione synthase gene GSH1 was increased under Cd(II) stress and in the atatm3 mutant [3].
  • The similarity in primary sequence and expression pattern of STA1 and ATA1 indicate that these genes have a conserved role in tapetum development [4].

Biological context of STA1

  • One of the cDNAs identified, STA1, had high DNA and amino acid sequence homology to the male sex determining gene of Zea mays (maize), TASSELSEED2 [4].

Associations of STA1 with chemical compounds

  • Moreover, atatm3 mutant plants expressing 35S promoter-driven AtATM3 were more resistant to Cd than wild-type plants [3].
  • Nitrate reductase activity (Moco, heme) was decreased by 50% in the strong atm3 alleles, but catalase activity (heme) was similar to that of the wild type [5].


  1. A mutation of the mitochondrial ABC transporter Sta1 leads to dwarfism and chlorosis in the Arabidopsis mutant starik. Kushnir, S., Babiychuk, E., Storozhenko, S., Davey, M.W., Papenbrock, J., De Rycke, R., Engler, G., Stephan, U.W., Lange, H., Kispal, G., Lill, R., Van Montagu, M. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. STABILIZED1, a stress-upregulated nuclear protein, is required for pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA turnover, and stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Lee, B.H., Kapoor, A., Zhu, J., Zhu, J.K. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. AtATM3 is involved in heavy metal resistance in Arabidopsis. Kim, D.Y., Bovet, L., Kushnir, S., Noh, E.W., Martinoia, E., Lee, Y. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Conserved expression of a TASSELSEED2 homolog in the tapetum of the dioecious Silene latifolia and Arabidopsis thaliana. Lebel-Hardenack, S., Ye, D., Koutnikova, H., Saedler, H., Grant, S.R. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. An allelic mutant series of ATM3 reveals its key role in the biogenesis of cytosolic iron-sulfur proteins in Arabidopsis. Bernard, D.G., Cheng, Y., Zhao, Y., Balk, J. Plant Physiol. (2009) [Pubmed]
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