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MeSH Review

Anemia, Hypochromic

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Disease relevance of Anemia, Hypochromic


High impact information on Anemia, Hypochromic

  • Tentoxin is a naturally occurring phytotoxic peptide that causes seedling chlorosis and arrests growth in sensitive plants and algae [6].
  • In order to evaluate the role of HCR in the pathogenesis of hypochromic anemias, HCR was isolated and partially purified from intact rabbit reticulocytes incubated in vitro with either 0.1 mM alpha,alpha-dipyridyl (an iron-chelating agent) or 0.1 M ethanol [7].
  • AtSufE overexpression induces AtSufS and AtNifS1 expression, which in turn leads to elevated cysteine desulfurization activity, chlorosis and retarded development [8].
  • Plants inoculated with the KEE146 mutant, which retains 16% pRBR binding activity, only developed chlorosis along the veins, and viral DNA, AL1 protein and the host DNA synthesis factor, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, were localized to vascular tissue [9].
  • The T-DNA-tagged mutant paleface1 (pfc1) grows normally at 22 degrees C but at 5 degrees C exhibits a pattern of chilling-induced chlorosis consistent with a disruption of chloroplast development [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Anemia, Hypochromic

  • Recent clinical trials evaluating gallium nitrate as a chemotherapeutic agent have reported the development of microcytic hypochromic anemia in patients treated with this agent [11].
  • Hypocupremia-related hypochromic anemia during D-penicillamine treatment [12].
  • It has been hypothesized that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) nutrition might induce iron (Fe) deficiency chlorosis by inactivation of Fe in the leaf apoplast (H.U. Kosegarten, B. Hoffmann, K. Mengel [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1069-1079) [13].
  • Preventing SA accumulation by expression of the nahG gene reduced subsequent ethylene production and altered the development of disease symptoms, with plants showing no visible chlorosis [14].
  • NO scavengers 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and methylene blue promoted interveinal chlorosis in iron-replete maize plants (growing in 250 microM Fe-EDTA) [15].

Biological context of Anemia, Hypochromic


Gene context of Anemia, Hypochromic

  • Mutations in the murine hephaestin gene (sla) produce microcytic, hypochromic anemia that is refractory to oral iron therapy [21].
  • Thus, Cp(-/-) have mild microcytic, hypochromic anemia consistent with normal red cell formation but defective iron availability [22].
  • Plants that accumulate the Pab1p display a range of abnormalities, ranging from a characteristic chlorosis in leaves to a necrosis and large inhibition of growth [23].
  • The nblA family of genes encodes for small proteins necessary for the ordered degradation of phycobilisomes under certain stress conditions, a process known as chlorosis [24].
  • The replicase back mutant (ToMV-K(rase)) produced chlorosis and mosaic symptoms on N. tabacum cv. Huangmiaoyu (systemic host), while the MP recovery mutant (ToMV-K(mp)) produced no systemic symptoms on Huangmiaoyu tobacco [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anemia, Hypochromic


  1. A mutation of the mitochondrial ABC transporter Sta1 leads to dwarfism and chlorosis in the Arabidopsis mutant starik. Kushnir, S., Babiychuk, E., Storozhenko, S., Davey, M.W., Papenbrock, J., De Rycke, R., Engler, G., Stephan, U.W., Lange, H., Kispal, G., Lill, R., Van Montagu, M. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Bradyrhizobium japonicum rhizobitoxine genes and putative enzyme functions: expression requires a translational frameshift. Ruan, X., Zhang, C., Peters, N.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of a locus controlling Verticillium disease symptom response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Veronese, P., Narasimhan, M.L., Stevenson, R.A., Zhu, J.K., Weller, S.C., Subbarao, K.V., Bressan, R.A. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The ORF1 products of tombusviruses play a crucial role in lethal necrosis of virus-infected plants. Burgyán, J., Hornyik, C., Szittya, G., Silhavy, D., Bisztray, G. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Low plasma cholesterol: a correlate of nondiagnosed celiac disease in adults with hypochromic anemia. Ciacci, C., Cirillo, M., Giorgetti, G., Alfinito, F., Franchi, A., Mazzetti di Pietralata, M., Mazzacca, G. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Tentoxin sensitivity of chloroplasts determined by codon 83 of beta subunit of proton-ATPase. Avni, A., Anderson, J.D., Holland, N., Rochaix, J.D., Gromet-Elhanan, Z., Edelman, M. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. A rabbit reticulocyte model for the role of hemin-controlled repressor in hypochromic anemias. Freedman, M.L., Rosman, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. AtSufE is an essential activator of plastidic and mitochondrial desulfurases in Arabidopsis. Xu, X.M., Møller, S.G. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A geminivirus replication protein interacts with the retinoblastoma protein through a novel domain to determine symptoms and tissue specificity of infection in plants. Kong, L.J., Orozco, B.M., Roe, J.L., Nagar, S., Ou, S., Feiler, H.S., Durfee, T., Miller, A.B., Gruissem, W., Robertson, D., Hanley-Bowdoin, L. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Chloroplast development at low temperatures requires a homolog of DIM1, a yeast gene encoding the 18S rRNA dimethylase. Tokuhisa, J.G., Vijayan, P., Feldmann, K.A., Browse, J.A. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of hemoglobin production by transferrin-gallium. Chitambar, C.R., Zivkovic, Z. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypocupremia-related hypochromic anemia during D-penicillamine treatment. Cutolo, M., Accardo, S., Cimmino, M.A., Rovetta, G., Bianchi, G., Bianchi, V. Arthritis Rheum. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitrate does not result in iron inactivation in the apoplast of sunflower leaves. Nikolic, M., Römheld, V. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Susceptible to intolerance--a range of hormonal actions in a susceptible Arabidopsis pathogen response. O'Donnell, P.J., Schmelz, E.A., Moussatche, P., Lund, S.T., Jones, J.B., Klee, H.J. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Nitric oxide improves internal iron availability in plants. Graziano, M., Beligni, M.V., Lamattina, L. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Hematopoietic repopulation of adult mice with beta-thalassemia. Barker, J.E., Compton, S.T. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. The role of salicylic acid in the induction of cell death in Arabidopsis acd11. Brodersen, P., Malinovsky, F.G., Hématy, K., Newman, M.A., Mundy, J. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Arabidopsis mutants that suppress the phenotype induced by transgene-mediated expression of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) gene VI are less susceptible to CaMV-infection and show reduced ethylene sensitivity. Geri, C., Love, A.J., Cecchini, E., Barrett, S.J., Laird, J., Covey, S.N., Milner, J.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Bacterial orthologues indicate the malarial plastid gene ycf24 is essential. Law, A.E., Mullineaux, C.W., Hirst, E.M., Saldanha, J., Wilson, R.J. Protist (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Atrazine-induced chlorosis in Synechococcus elongatus cells. González-Barreiro, O., Rioboo, C., Cid, A., Herrero, C. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Recombinant expression and functional characterization of human hephaestin: a multicopper oxidase with ferroxidase activity. Griffiths, T.A., Mauk, A.G., MacGillivray, R.T. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Anemia and impaired stress-induced erythropoiesis in aceruloplasminemic mice. Cherukuri, S., Tripoulas, N.A., Nurko, S., Fox, P.L. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. The yeast polyadenylate-binding protein (PAB1) gene acts as a disease lesion mimic gene when expressed in plants. Li, Q., Von Lanken, C., Yang, J., Lawrence, C.B., Hunt, A.G. Plant Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. NblA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 is a mostly alpha-helical protein undergoing reversible trimerization in solution. Strauss, H., Misselwitz, R., Labudde, D., Nicklisch, S., Baier, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Nonsense mutations of replicase and movement protein genes contribute to the attenuation of an avirulent tomato mosaic virus. Yang, G., Qiu, B.S., Liu, X.G., Li, Y., Wang, X.F. Virus Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Insertional transposon mutagenesis in the Xylella fastidiosa Citrus Variegated Chlorosis strain with transposome. Koide, T., da Silva Neto, J.F., Gomes, S.L., Marques, M.V. Curr. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Glufosinate (phosphinothricin), a natural amino acid with unexpected herbicidal properties. Hoerlein, G. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of high-dose vitamin B6 therapy on microcytic and hypochromic anemia in hemodialysis patients. Toriyama, T., Matsuo, S., Fukatsu, A., Takahashi, H., Sato, K., Mimuro, N., Kawahara, H. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi. (1993) [Pubmed]
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