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Gene Review

INO  -  axial regulator YABBY 4

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: F26F24.29, F26F24_29, INNER NO OUTER
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Disease relevance of INO

  • Roles of individual regions of CRC and INO in these effects were assessed using chimeric proteins with PRO(INO) and PRO(CRC) and the relatively constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus PRO(35S) [1].

High impact information on INO

  • INO encodes a member of the newly described YABBY family of putative transcription factors that contain apparent Cys(2)-Cys(2) zinc-finger domains and regions of similarity to the high mobility group (HMG) transcription factors [2].
  • Protein fusions demonstrate nuclear localization of INO, consistent with a proposed role as a transcription factor for this member of the YABBY protein family [3].
  • Through complementation and reporter gene analysis, a region of INO 5'-flanking sequences was identified that contains sufficient information for appropriate expression of INO [3].
  • However, INO was the only YABBY family member that responded correctly to SUPERMAN to maintain the wild-type gynoapical-gynobasal asymmetry of the outer integument [1].
  • The polar-charged region of NZZ was necessary and sufficient to bind to the zinc finger of INO and to interact with its C terminus carrying the high mobility group-like domain [4].

Biological context of INO


Other interactions of INO

  • Genetic evidence has shown that NZZ is involved in the positive feedback regulation of INO, thereby acting both as a temporal and spatial repressor of INO transcription [4].
  • All YABBY coding regions, except YABBY5, were able to restore outer integument growth in ino-1 mutants when expressed from the INO promoter (PRO(INO)) [1].
  • By contrast, INO, FILAMENTOUS FLOWER, and YABBY3 failed to complement crc-1 when expressed from PRO(CRC) [1].
  • The INNER NO OUTER (INO) and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) genes are essential for ovule integument development in Arabidopsis thaliana [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of INO


  1. Multiple protein regions contribute to differential activities of YABBY proteins in reproductive development. Meister, R.J., Oldenhof, H., Bowman, J.L., Gasser, C.S. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. INNER NO OUTER regulates abaxial- adaxial patterning in Arabidopsis ovules. Villanueva, J.M., Broadhvest, J., Hauser, B.A., Meister, R.J., Schneitz, K., Gasser, C.S. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. SUPERMAN attenuates positive INNER NO OUTER autoregulation to maintain polar development of Arabidopsis ovule outer integuments. Meister, R.J., Kotow, L.M., Gasser, C.S. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Organ polarity in Arabidopsis. NOZZLE physically interacts with members of the YABBY family. Sieber, P., Petrascheck, M., Barberis, A., Schneitz, K. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression pattern of INNER NO OUTER homologue in Nymphaea (water lily family, Nymphaeaceae). Yamada, T., Ito, M., Kato, M. Dev. Genes Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Interactions among genes regulating ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Baker, S.C., Robinson-Beers, K., Villanueva, J.M., Gaiser, J.C., Gasser, C.S. Genetics (1997) [Pubmed]
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